What To Book In London This June

What To Book In London This June

From wellness events and outdoor theatre, to a pop-up members club and sleepovers at a hot new hotel, there’s plenty to see and do if you’re staying in London this month… 31st May 2019 Save to My Favourites GET TICKETS FOR A HOT POP-UP HERE: Mo ë t Summer House
Following its successful debut last year, Moët Summer House returns to the capital this month. Offering a three-day programme of events, Moët Summer House will bring together tastemakers from the worlds of fashion, film, food and music kick-start the summer. Throughout the event, guests will have the chance to take their look from day-to-night with beauty from Givenchy and grooming from Acqua di Parma. On Friday night Katherine Ryan will perform an exclusive stand-up special based on her critically acclaimed West End show Glitter Room . On Saturday and Sunday you’ll find Isaac Carew of The Dirty Dishes, a website and YouTube channel dedicated to simple but delicious meals, serving up a masterpiece three-course meal accompanied by three glasses of Moët. Across the weekend, there’ll also be dinners from Jason Atherton and talks by Jack Guinness, Arizona Muse and Russell Tovey.
Visit MoetSummerHouse.com BOOK TICKETS FOR THIS: A Midsummer Night’s Dream
The award-winning Regent’s Park Open Air Theatre is a London landmark and a firm fixture in the summer calendar. This month, William Shakespeare’s fantastical fable of desire, confusion, jealousy and growing up comes to the royal park. Through live music, playful adventure and physical invention, guests will watch the A Midsummer Night’s Dream ’s lovers’ world transformed into a place of magic, laughter and healing deep into the woods. The company’s 2019 season also includes Our Town (until 8th June), the opera Hansel and Gretel (14th-22nd June) in a co-production with English National Opera, and Evita (2nd August–21st September). Elsewhere, the theatre group’s award-winning production of Jesus Christ Superstar plays a 60-performance season at the Barbican Theatre from 4th July-24th August.
Visit OpenAirTheatre.com EXPERIENCE A NEW RESTAURANT HERE: Arros QD
This month sees the launch of Arros QD , the new London opening from three-Michelin-starred Valencian chef Quique Dacosta. His first restaurant in London and outside of his native Spain, the project will showcase Quique’s unique style of cooking while highlighting his passion for rice and local, seasonal ingredients. To celebrate, SheerLuxe readers are invited to be one of the first to experience the restaurant. Book a table for lunch or dinner at the restaurant on 3rd, 4th, 5th or 6th June and SL readers will enjoy 50% off food. Reservations will be accepted on a first-come, first-served basis, so make sure to get in there quick.
64 Eastcastle Street, Fitzrovia, W1W 8NQ; 3rd-6th June; please email quoting ‘SHEERLUXE’ in the subject line, including your name and preferred booking time
Visit ArrosQD.com BE A SHEERLUXE VIP HERE: The Blitz Party
Coinciding with the 75th anniversary of the D-Day Normandy landings, Bourne & Hollingsworth’s June event will remember Britain’s heroes with bustling music, fortifying cocktails and a dash of patriotic spirit. The Blitz Party is London’s best-loved 1940s party, which now only takes place twice a year, where high-end fancy dress is mandatory. The night recreates the glamour of 1940s wartime London, with live big bands performing a repertoire of 40s classics and modern favourites remixed to resemble the style of the era, the perfect soundtrack for land girls and the home guard to get down on the dance floor. Ration books will replace bar menus and there will be plenty of wartime snacks on hand in the Mess Hall. SheerLuxe VIP members have access to an exclusive 2 for 1 offer on tickets here .
The Vaults, Leake Street, SE1 7NN; 8th June
Visit SheerluxeVIP.com ATTEND THE ULTIMATE BIRTHDAY BASH HERE: Freak Scene
On 4th June, Scott Hallsworth’s Freak Scene will celebrate its first birthday – and the team is using it as the ultimate excuse to throw a party. Scott and the team will be at the counter cooking up Freak Scene classics and pouring celebratory sake shots to a soundtrack of live music from the house band. Scott’s will be cooking up the same dishes which put his original pop-up on the map: think chili crab and avocado wonton bombs and chicken fried chicken, alongside new dishes such as hot tuna and scallops with oxtail. For one night only there’ll be a rainbow pandan-flavoured birthday cake and each booze-soaked slice will come topped with its own sparkler.
Visit FreakScene.London GET GREEN HERE: Percy & Founders
Percy & Founders is launching its first-ever summer campaign with a celebration of all things green – ‘Greener On The Inside’. Over four weeks, the cocktail bar will be decked out with an abundance of seasonal plants and luscious green foliage, immersing guests in an outdoor atmosphere. To add to the garden feel, the terrace will be filled with a wild and colourful display of English plants and flowers – the perfect setting to enjoy a summer spritz and some delicious seasonal treats from the summer menu. The bar has also teamed up with the world’s first Fairtrade-certified spirits brand FAIR to create a seasonal cocktail made with vodka, house-made sugar snap pea and mint syrup, fresh lime and Franklin & Sons soda. For every cocktail served, £1 will be donated to The Felix Project, a local charity which is dedicated to rescuing edible food waste and delivering it to vulnerable people suffering from food poverty in London.
Visit PercyAndFounders.co.uk CELEBRATE THE SUMMER SOLSTICE HERE: Re:Centre
To celebrate the Summer Solstice, Hammersmith yoga and meditation studio Re:Centre is hosting two days of different workshops, events and activities. From an evening yoga class featuring guided meditation and crystal sound-bowl healing to a sun salutation workshop and beyond, the team aims to help guests ring in summer 2019 with a programme of art, music, yoga and meditation. We like the sound of the yoga nidra workshop, where – through guided meditation – you’ll journey into a state of conscious relaxation and awaken the senses with sounds from crystal bowls and aromas of essential oils. And relax.
Visit ReCentre.co.uk EAT EVERYTHING IN SIGHT HERE: Taste of London
Food festival Taste of London is getting ready to welcome some of the capital’s brightest culinary stars to Regents Park for a get-together focused on eating, drinking and world-class masterclasses. For five days, the people and restaurants that have propelled London’s culinary landscape into the global limelight will take part in a series of exclusive dining experiences, masterclasses and cook up a menu of never seen before dishes. This year, the festival will be centered around a ‘Wild in the City’ theme, exploring concepts including sustainability and championing craftsmanship in food, drink, atmosphere and music in an urban environment.
Regent’s Park, NW1 4NR ; 19th-23rd June
BOOK A STAY HERE: The Buxton
The Buxton is now open following a painstaking restoration project. Housed in a Victorian building on Brick Lane, the 15-bedroom hotel and pub is the newest launch from the team behind The Culpeper, on nearby Commercial Street. This new hotel balances modernity with the beauty of old-world design: a glass ceiling sits atop the five-storey staircase, which leads up to the bedrooms and rooftop, flooding the space with natural light. Each bedroom is simple and paired back, featuring bespoke, multifunctional furniture, original artwork and handwoven rugs and blankets. Best of all, every bedroom is priced at a flat rate of £100 which includes a welcome drink and breakfast. Downstairs, a simple and seasonal menu of regional European and British dishes is served throughout the day: think scotch eggs with brown sauce, British asparagus with stracciatella and polenta chips, plus Yorkshire rhubarb and custard tart with clotted cream.
Visit TheBuxton.co.uk BE LIKE GWYNETH HERE: In Goop Health
Goop, the modern lifestyle brand founded and run by Gwyneth Paltrow, is bringing its popular wellness summit In Goop Health to London – the first time the event has come to Europe. Hosted by Paltrow herself, the all-day event on 29th June promises to be immersive and intimate, withpanels and workshops that explore what it means to feel and be well—mentally, physically, emotionally and spiritually. There’ll also be restorative masterclasses, plus the brand’s signature retail hall and food from local plant-based haunts. On Sunday, Goop will extend its London programming at Re:Centre, Hammersmith, where sessions start at £30. Event highlights include a ‘Transformational Thinking’ workshop with psychotherapist Barry Michels; ‘Fertility Myths and Answers: Zita West’s Guide to Getting Pregnant’ and ‘Getting Unstuck: A Restorative Yin Yoga Class with Emma Peel’.
Visit Goop.com GET TO GRIPS WITH FLOWERS HERE: Grace and Thorn
Ever thought of a change in career to become a florist or even about doing your own or your friend’s wedding flowers? At Grace and Thorn you can test the water before diving in deep with a one-day floristry course that covers the fundamentals of floristry including conditioning, preparing flowers and the all-important equipment you need. The day is very much an open forum and you can ask any questions you wish about how to be a florist or even how to start your own business. Floristry is hard work so the team will keep you well refreshed throughout the day and there’ll be a pause for lunch – plus you’ll be able to take all your creations home with you.
Visit GraceAndThorn.com EAT OYSTERS HERE: London Seafood Festival
For the second year running, London Seafood Festival will transform Battersea Power Station into a celebration of all things seafood with a series of one-off events, masterclasses, al fresco demonstrations and tastings with top London chefs including José Pizarro and Francesco Mazzei. Over at Wright Brothers, celebrations will include an oyster masterclass, seasonal crab feasting experience and a kitchen takeover with award-winning seafood restaurant Ondine. On Friday 14th June, the festival will see acclaimed chefs Vivek Singh and Asma Kahn come together to showcase of the best of seafood and Indian cuisine. Kicking off at 6pm, guests can catch the screening of Asma’s Netflix episode of Chef’s Table in the new Archlight Cinema alongside some Indian snacks and a Q&A with both chefs. Next, guests will head to Cinnamon Kitchen to enjoy a welcome cocktail and spread of spiced seafood dishes concocted by Vivek and Asma, served family-style.
Visit LondonSeafoodFestival.com SEE CINDERELLA HERE: Royal Albert Hall
This month, English National Ballet will show Christopher Wheeldon’s Cinderella in-the-round at the Royal Albert Hall. The classic fairytale is set to become a spectacular 130-dancer ballet for English National Ballet’s biggest production to date. The audience will enter an enchanting kingdom where forest creatures live alongside princes, a growing tree appears to dance in the wind and Cinderella’s wit and generosity get her to the ball – with the help of a little bit of magic. This inventive production combines magnificent sets and costumes, surprising theatrical tricks and lively choreography – all to the melodious tunes of Prokofiev’s score, performed by English National Ballet Philharmonic.
Visit Ballet.org.uk
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Where to eat in Aruba | the best foodie experiences

Written by Pip Jones on May 31, 2019
When you think of Aruba you might imagine a small, sun-kissed Caribbean island with gentle surf, beautiful beaches and sun loungers. You might not realise that it is a surprising foodie destination, with many exciting dining options.
If you are wondering where to eat in Aruba, make sure to read my guide to the best places to eat in Aruba.
Start planning your dream, foodie holiday in the Caribbean island today. Where to eat in Aruba
Aruba has a large selection of dining choices and some of the best foodie experiences in the Caribbean. Aruba cuisine has been influenced heavily by its diverse heritage and history. Aruba has over 90 different nationalities resident on the island and each culture brings its own culinary flair.
The dishes are inspired by a range of cultures including Dutch, French, Spanish and Arawak Indian. Aruban cuisine has evolved over the years into a delicious fusion of these cuisines with vibrant Caribbean flavours.
Here you can feast on traditional Caribbean dishes, Dutch specialities and incredible curries. With over 250 places to eat on the island, Aruba is the perfect place for Caribbean food travel.
Disclaimer: This post is sponsored by Aruba Tourism UK. Where do the locals eat in Aruba
If you aren’t a fan of fine dining, there is a huge range of lively local restaurants in Aruba. Many of which are frequented by the Islanders. You can take your time exploring the local foodie options and eating your way around the island.
To discover the best eats, you can always ask the hotel or resort staff where they would recommend? Or you can check out recommendations from other travellers on TripAdvisor. Best local restaurants in Aruba
Some of the best local eats in Aruba are often away from the fancy hotels and flashy resorts. Here are a few recommended places to eat in Aruba, to get a flavour of local life and eating.
For some of the best seafood in Aruba head to Zeerovers . You can order the fresh catch of the day and enjoy snapper, shrimp and barracuda at this oceanfront restaurant. For delicious Snapper, head to Flying Fishbone. It’s a fantastic seafood restaurant right on the beach.
If you are looking for a bit of Dutch flavour, check out Bingo! Cafe and Restaurant . There’s a Dutch-style bar here that has a brilliant selection of wines and carefully crafted cocktails. You can also try their Shrimp, Norwegian Salmon and Grouper. Aruba restaurants palm beach
Palm Beach in Aruba has the most glorious white powder sands. There’s also incredible swimming conditions in beautiful blue waters. There are plenty of lovely places to eat in and around Palm Beach. You can also visit Eagle Beach for foodie options, which is about 3 miles away from Palm Beach.
For fine dining in Aruba visit +297 Restaurant in Palm Beach. This contemporary restaurant is a foodie paradise with shared plates and delicious cocktails. They have indoor and outdoor seating and the decor is highly stylised.
If you are looking for Italian cuisine in Aruba, head to Amore Mio Pizzeria Napoletana . You can enjoy authentic wood-fired Neapolitan pizza, that’s lovingly made from scratch.
For some of the best cocktails in Aruba check out Pelican Nest Bar in Palm Beach. Here you can have jumbo cocktails, frozen cocktails and classic cocktails in a lively atmosphere.
You should also head to The Beach Bar , located on the beach behind Playa Linda Beach Resort. relax in cosy surroundings with gorgeous ocean views whilst sipping on a cocktail or two. Cocktails are best enjoyed by the beach right?
Aruba restaurants on the water
What could be better than dining with an ocean view in Aruba? There’s nothing quite like having dinner and listening to the sound of the waves breaking on the shore. There are several seafront dining options in Aruba. Many of the oceanfront resorts in Aruba will also have sea view dining available. Marriott Resort & Stellaris Casino
The Marriott Resort & Stellaris Casino has many beachfront dining options. You can win a trip for two to The Marriott Resort & Stellaris Casino with Aruba Tourism UK , including return flights. Click the link to enter or scroll down to the end of this article for more information. Hyatt Regency Aruba Resort and Casino
The Hyatt Regency Aruba Resort and Casino has a beautiful beachside dining experience at their Palms Restaurant. You can enjoy fresh island cuisine in a beach dining setting that is a perfect romantic dinner setting. Make sure to ask about their amazing cocktail range.
Matthew’s Beachside Restaurant is a great place for all you can eat ribs by the sea! They also have plenty of entertainment to accompany your dining experience. Live entertainment includes a live steel drum band on certain nights, live music and karaoke.
Bucuti & Tara Beach Resort has unforgettable beachfront dining at their Elements Restaurant. Sit on the oceanfront deck, or admire the ocean inside, with floor to ceiling glass windows. It’s one of the best places for sunset dining in Aruba. Lunch on a Catamaran in Aruba
Why not have a vibrant Caribbean lunch aboard a Catamaran in Aruba? There are many sailing and snorkelling adventures in Aruba and many with have a lunch option as well.
Book a Morning Catamaran Cruise with Lunch to snorkel and swim in the beautiful waters and then relax with an onboard lunch. Spot amazing marine life as you snorkel in crystal clear waters and then enjoy a tasty lunch.
You can feast upon Caribbean classics on this boat trip including grouper, BBQ chicken and fruit skewers. Also, enjoy unlimited local cocktails on board. Aruba seafood
One of the big foodie attractions in Aruba is the seafood. You can enjoy a range of seafood dishes that are freshly caught by Aruba’s local fishermen. Make sure to ask what the ‘catch of the day’ is when visiting a seafood restaurant in Aruba.
Some of the best seafood restaurants in Aruba include The Old Fisherman, Windows on Aruba and the Flying Fishbone. Aruba Cuisine
Food plays a huge part in Aruban culture, there’s a real vibrancy to local dishes that are packed full of flavour. There are many traditional dishes in Aruba you can try. Ask the staff at your hotel and resort what they would recommend? Caribbean soups and stews
Properly Authentic Aruban soups are very hearty and filling. Aruban soups and stews can either be served as a starter or as a main dish.
Some of the most popular soups in Aruba are Sopi Mondongo, Pumpkin soup, Cool Island Soup and Erwten soup. This pea soup is Dutch traditional soup with a Caribbean twist.
The popular Cool Island soup is a really unusual type of soup. It’s a fruity and chilled soup that is very cooling on those hot Aruba days.
Goat stew [Cabrito stoba], is also very popular with the locals. Many will claim their family has the best Goat Stew recipe. This filling stew will feature local spices and herbs and potatoes. Satee
You have to try Marinated Meat on Skewers when in Aruba. The Dutch adopted this typical Indonesian dish and then introduced it into Aruba Cuisine. Many Aruban and Indonesia restaurants will serve meat skewers in Aruba. Goat Curry This dish is a result of Indian influence in Caribbean cuisine. In Aruba, Goat curry is actually a bit more of a stew and is often served with rice and Indian flatbread. If you don’t fancy the idea of goat, you can always order a chicken curry instead? Ask the locals where to find the best goat curry on the island? Bitterballen
Another Dutch classic that has found its way into Aruba cuisine. Bitterballen are small and golden deep-fried balls of deliciousness.
These popular, bite-sized snacks contain a mixture of meat and have a lovely crispy exterior and a warm, gooey interior. They are often sold at roadside stands in Aruba. Plantain
Plantain is mainly served as a side on a variety of main dishes in Aruba. It can also be enjoyed alone as a delicious, caramelly snack. Plantain is a ‘cooking banana’, as it is best enjoyed fried or baked to release the sweetness. When cooked correctly, they should be crisp on the outside and soft on the inside. Aruba food scene
There are so many dining options on the Aruba food scene. Prices are mostly comparable to dining out in U.S. cities such as Atlanta . There is a good variety of budget eats available and even a food truck festival.
There are also new cafes and restaurants springing up on the island, keeping things fresh.
If you are looking for further recommendations on where to eat in Aruba, check out Aruba Tourism UK . Here you’ll find lots of information about dining on the island. Win a trip to Aruba
Tempted by Aruba’s food scene? Aruba Tourism UK is giving away a fabulous trip for two to Aruba, including return flights. By entering the competition you could be in with a chance to win a 7-night stay with breakfast, at the fabulous Aruba Marriott Resort & Stellaris Casino.
You’ll also be spoiled to a Palm Pleasure’s sunset sail aboard a luxurious catamaran with De Palm Tours. You can find more information about the competition below.
Click here to enter: Win a trip to Aruba Aruba video Love this post? Why not pin it and share it?
Disclaimer : This is a sponsored post with Aruba Tourism UK. This post may contain affiliate links that earn me a small commission but come at no additional cost to you . By clicking these links you are supporting Pip and the City and helping to keep the content free. Massive thanks for your ongoing support. Pip Jones Pip Jones is a UK travel blogger, freelance writer and travel contributor for BBC Radio. She has been shortlisted for at the Visit Holland Press Awards for Travel Journalism. Also shortlisted for a Vuelio blogging award and the UK Post Office Travel blogger of the year. She can normally be found drinking wine, typing an article and taking a selfie all at the same time.

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HOT NEW TABLES June 2019: New Restaurants In Hong Kong

HOT NEW TABLES June 2019: New Restaurants In Hong Kong Posted Today Eat & Drink HOT NEW TABLES June 2019: New Restaurants In Hong Kong From beachside Thai eateries and street food favourites to laid-back French fare, here are latest restaurants that are set to open in Hong Kong this June.
Because Hong Kong’s dining scene is ever-changing, we want to give you a heads up about all of the latest restaurants that are set to open in our city this June . From beachside Thai eateries and Asian street food favourites to laid-back French fare here’s where (and what!) we’re eating this month.
Read more: What’s New In The 852: Brickhouse’s Night Brunch, Lunch At Franks And More
Set to open in July, Sip Song – Thai Eatery & Bar will be joining beach side favourite and Maximal Concepts alum, Limewood in Repulse Bay. Serving up authentic Thai street food , the menu is inspired by the beach culture of the Southern Thai coast and the food of Bangkok night markets , with the relaxed and beach-chic interiors also reflecting this. Head Chef Nuch Srichantranon is a Bangkok native who grew up taking regular trips to the beaches of his mother’s hometown of Satun, in South Thailand. He recalls the vivid sights, smells, and sounds of the night markets when visiting as a boy, which in turn have helped influence this new spot and his goal of “bringing back the focus to dynamic Thai flavours and fresh quality ingredients, whilst incorporating influences from my time cooking in Australia.” Signature menu items will include “Don’t Tell Mom” Roti Pancake with BBQ pork neck , chilli jam, spring onion, fresh herbs, crispy shallot; Thai Son-in-Law Scotch Egg with minced chicken, crispy shallot, chilli; Whole Steamed Mullet Fish ; and Ube Ice Cream with coconut, taro chips, salted peanuts and Thai whiskey caramel.
Sip Song – Thai Eatery & Bar , The Pulse, 28 Beach Road, Repulse Bay, Hong Kong
Hot on the heels of Taqueria Super Macho , Black Sheep is at it again with the opening of Rajasthan Rifles this June. After the success of city favourites such as New Punjab Club and Hotal Colombo , the acclaimed restaurant group is venturing back to the Indian subcontinent and welcoming the Anglo-Indian mess hall to its wide range of eateries . As the groups first foray at The Peak, the new opening is situated next door to the new Bread Street Kitchen, and the restaurant promises sprawling views of Hong Kong . Menu items include everything from Tandoor-grilled meats and creamy curries to the “Company Special” Lamb Biryani, along with the British-inspired Bread & Butter pudding for dessert.
Rajasthan Rifles , Shop G01, G/F, The Peak Galleria, 118 Peak Road, The Peak, Hong Kong, www.rajasthanrifles.com
Opening on Tuesday, 18 June, Louise is the much-anticipated new opening from JIA Group and Michelin-starred chef, Julien Royer . We first heard word back in April that the new restaurant would be taking the location in PMQ that previously housed Aberdeen Street Social, only shortly after Royer’s Singapore based restaurant, Odette, picked up the top spot in the 2019 Asia’s 50 Best Restaurants list. Taking a traditional, yet casual approach to French fare , Royer stated that “Louise allows me to really go back to my roots, and rediscover the heritage recipes that I grew up with”. Foodies across the city will be pleased to hear that the restaurant will be taking bookings from Saturday, 1 June, ahead of its opening on Tuesday, 18 June .
Louise , G/F, JPC, PMQ, 35 Aberdeen Street, Central, Hong Kong, 2866 0300, [email protected]
Open now, The Leah promises to serve up a menu of comfort food classics, quality drinks and a garden party-like atmosphere . With menus created by Chef James Sharman, it offers “British food done right”, with hearty favourites on the menu such as Scotch Egg & Soldiers ( duck egg wrapped in sausage and breadcrumbs ), Chicken, Leek & Bacon pie, and a show-stopping Beef Wellington . For drinks, think happy hours and after-dinner brews, with offers ranging from enticing cocktails, international ales and non-alcoholic options. Keep an eye out for our review coming soon.
The Leah , 308 & 311 Lee Garden Two, 28 Yun Ping Road, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong
Promising to be a sensational Yakiniku dining experience, Wagyu Vanne by Gosango is now open in Causeway Bay and features traditional Japanese grilling with a subtle Western twist . The brainchild of celebrity chef Vanne Kuwahara ( founder of Tokyo’s Ebisu ), this culinary concept will continue its relationship with Hiyama, one of Japan’s oldest meat suppliers, bringing its finest cuts to Hong Kong. Give its ten-course tasting menu a go ( $998 ), with highlights including Wagyu sushi, daily special meat cut in “Shabu Shabu” style with shaved truffle and A5 Wagyu Chateaubriand that will be cooked in front of you. Or take your pick from its a-la-carte menu, there’s something on it for every beef lover – including beef-scented tea!
Wagyu Vanne by Gosango , 1/F, Tower 535, 535 Jaffe Road, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong, www.gosango.com.hk/wagyu-vanne
Adding a sixth location to its ever-growing empire, Feather & Bone is now open in Wan Chai! Sticking true to its roots, the new location offers up the same high-quality butchers counter, deli items and fresh produce to take away , along with an in house restaurant for customers to eat in. All-day dining dishes include everything from Eggs Benedict, Steak Sandwiches and Full English Breakfast, to Beef Burgers, Truffle Mac ‘n’ Cheese and much more, along with a selection of freshly prepared meat dishes from the Butchers Counter, served with your choice of side and sauce.
Feather & Bone , G/F, 5 Luard Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong, www.featherandbone.com.hk
There must be something in the air this month, as along with Sip Song – Thai Eatery & Bar opening in Repulse Bay, COCONUTS Thai Bar & Grill will be coming to Deep Water Bay! Perfect for enjoying in the summer months, COCONUTS will be open all day long from 11am to 11pm and offers up a taste of modern Thai beachside dining . Menu highlights include Spicy Papaya Salad with Crispy Soft Shell Crab; Tuna Tartare with fresh Thai herbs of Spice & Citrus and Thai Corn Chips; Whole Salt Baked French Seabass in lemongrass, Thai Basil, Kaffir with Bird Chilli Dip and much more, and the restaurant also offers Asado grills and roasts to go all week for lunch and dinner . Head down on weekdays and enjoy Gin O’Clock ( from 5pm to 7:30pm ), and don’t miss the weekend “Sunset Sessions”, beginning from Saturday, 8 June, complete with live DJs spinning a mix of deep house, dance, classics and electro.
COCONUTS Thai Bar & Grill , G/F West Block, Island Road, Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong, www.facebook.com/Coconuts
If you’re looking for affordable new eats in Sai Ying Pun than look no further than freshly opened Bingaz. Created by the team behind The Den and TM’s by The Den , Bingaz is sweetly named after the owner’s pet name for her son, and serves up an eclectic menu of Asian street food favourites . Everything on the fusion menu promises to be freshly homemade ( right down to the soup broth! ), with featured items including Wagyu Beef Skewers ( $28 ), Massam-inspired wings ( $10 ), and Seafood Laksa ( $68 ), along with a rage of teppanyaki dishes. Promising big flavours at value for money prices , it’s sure to be a new High Street hit.
Bingaz , 64 Third Street, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong, www.facebook.com/bingazstreetfood
Now open in Tai Hang, KONA is inspired by traditional Japanese Kappo cuisine, with Executive Chef Yip Chun Ki giving a contemporary twist to classic ingredients . Focusing on stellar seasonal ingredients, KONA promises to delight all the senses, and bring gourmands an unforgettable dining experience t. STandout dishes from the a la carte menu are sure to include Sea Urchin ( served with lobster broth jelly and egg sabayon ), Monaka Wafer ( made with foie gras and cheese ), Neck Meat ( gun smoked chicken ), and Wagyu Beef Bowl ( sukiyaki style, with summer truffles ). Reflecting its combination of the traditional and the contemporary, KONA’s interiors use natural materials and cool tones for a Zen-like and sophisticated ambience .
KONA , 16 Lin Fa Kung Street West, Tai Hang, Hong Kong, www.facebook.com/KONA-Hong-Kong
It may be summer, but hot pot lovers that are looking for a fresh new spin on the classic dish should check out newly opened Beauty in The Pot. Since opening its original branch in Singapore in 2104, the restaurant has gained a following for its Signature Health and Beauty broths . Promising to bring “a place where good ingredients, good broths, good tastes, good health, good service and good people come together”, Beauty in The Pot will be serving up fragrant and flavour-packed broths, with powerful Szechuan spices and chilli oil from China, and nourishing and health-promoting herbal soup bases from Taiwan . Favourite soup bases include the Signature Beauty Collagen Broth, Cooling Coconut Broth and Longevity Wild Pine Mushroom Broth, with a variety of fresh and specially selected ingredients such as Signature Homemade Fish Tofu, Crab Roe Prawn Paste and Fried Beancurd Skin available to add to the soup bases.
Beauty in The Pot , Shop 803, 8/F, Gala Place, 56 Dundas Street, Mong Kok, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Featured image courtesy of The Leah. Image 1 courtesy of Maximal Concepts, image 2 property of Sassy Media Group, image 3 courtesy of JIA Group via Instagram , image 4 courtesy of The Leah, image 5 courtesy of Wagyu Vanne by Gosango , image 6 courtesy of Feather & Bone HK via Instagram , image 7 courtesy of Coconuts Thai via Facebook , image 8 courtesy of Bingaz Street Food via Facebook , image 9 courtesy of KONA, image 10 courtesy of Beauty in The Pot. About the author Annie Simpson A born and bred Brit with a constant sense of wanderlust (and an insatiable appetite to match!), Annie will travel…
A born and bred Brit with a constant sense of wanderlust (and an insatiable appetite to match!), Annie will travel far and wide for a good meal. Heading up the Eat & Drink and What’s On sections at Sassy Hong Kong, Annie can usually be found hunting down the newest restaurants and bars in the city, sipping on a beer at the beach, or cooking up a storm in her tiny kitchen.

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Denver Travel Guide

May 30, 2019 by Brittany Boone
One of the most diverse and fun cities I have been to was Denver 2 weekends ago. I went with my best friend/roomie on a whim because we wanted to get away for the weekend, and it was one of the most affordable places to go. Everything about it was so unique with all of the many different neighborhoods that seemed like there were millions of them, the great restaurants, bar scene, art scene, and of course being so close to the mountains. I can see why so many people are moving to Denver every single month. Not only do you have the city at your fingertips, but the mountains are a quick 30 minute drive away. There are breath taking views every way you look and the city itself just feels really clean, which is a lot different than other metropolitan cities. Denver was a great place to visit, and I can’t wait to go back. See all of my favorite picks below and tell me some of your favorites if you have been before. To Stay
We stayed right by Union Station downtown and I think that was the best location to stay at. Anywhere downtown is pretty hopping and there is so much right by Union Station. We thought that would be the best location that we didn’t have to get an Uber very often. The area of RiNO also has some great hotels, but for our budget we decided to stay downtown and Uber there the 2 nights we went. There are lots of cute boutique hotels around Denver, all at very different price points. The Crawford Hotel $$$: Talk about location, this hotel is right inside of Union Station. We walked right by it when we were exploring all of the fun bars and food places that it had to offer. It is a 4 star hotel and makes the guessing out of where to go and how far away out of the equation, as everything is conveniently located. All of the guest rooms are vintage meets modern with some of the original wood beams from the late 1800’s. It has that boutique feel with all of the great close accommodations. Kimpton Hotel Born $$: This is the hotel we stayed at and absolutely loved it. We wanted something that was close to everything, but not too expensive since we would be exploring. I always like hotels that feel boutique like, but that are also close to everything. I have stayed at a Kimpton before in Savannah , and absolutely loved it. They try to decorate to match the city and vibe that you are in. It was decorated from the lobby that had a cozy fireplace and vintage colorful Turkish rugs to the rooms that had wood paneling on the ceiling and walls to give it that Colorado vibe. The bathrooms were a decent size, and it was walking distance to everything. They also have a Tesla that will take you around the area if you don’t feel like walking. Their restaurant on site was also pretty amazing! The Ramble Hotel $$: I thought this hotel was so funky and cute in one of our favorite neighborhoods RiNo (River North). We actually went to a bar here Death & Co where we stumbled upon this great hotel. It is the first hotel in the RiNo area and is booming with business. The lobby actually is more like a bar as the check in area is centered around lush leather couches and that swanky vintage vibe. The rooms are all decorated to the nines with exquisite art work and unique furniture. This boutique hotel is too cute and within walking distance to all of the great restaurants and bars that Denver offers. To Eat
There were so many places that I wanted to visit to eat at, and just not enough time. Always at the top of my list for any trip, I scope out the food scene first. It is one of my favorite hobbies to try new restaurants and it can tell a lot about a city. Denver did not disappoint, and I honestly think that it is one of those cities that is a pretty close second to Houston for being a mix of different food cuisines. I could probably spend a month here just trying all of the great restaurants. Denver Biscuit Company: This restaurant was a must and had been recommended by so many people to try. We love biscuits as you have seen when we went to Nashville . It did not disappoint and not to mention the portions are huge. You for sure have to get a biscuit sandwich, which we opted in for one that had honey butter with it because hello we are from Texas and all! The sweet potato fries and bloody Mary’s were also very yummy. This was a great place to start our Denver trip for breakfast. Mercantile: We came to dinner at this restaurant on the first night, and I highly recommend reservations. It was conveniently located in the Union Station and really focused on elevated comfort food. When I had looked at the menu online and had done some research, I knew that an award winning restaurant would not disappoint on our first night. We ordered the beef tartare which was some of the best I have ever had, and then got some hand-made pasta. You have to save some room for the apple bread pudding for dessert! Linger: This was my favorite restaurant of the trip! It is in the Highlands area of Denver which is another cute area for shopping and some great food destinations. Fun fact is that this restaurant used to be a mortuary and is now a hip restaurant with a funky cuisine. We went here for brunch and ended up starting with donut holes which were amazing and then dosa and banh mi. The menu for sure had an American, Indian and Vietnamese fusion all in one. I wanted to try everything on the menu and would want to come back for dinner. They also have a rooftop which would be great in the summertime. Work & Class: We came here for dinner on the last night and it was a huge success. It was a Sunday night so I am glad we were able to get in and get a table right away. This had been on my list at first glance because of the peppers five ways menu item which of course included bacon wrapped jalapeños. There was a group because my friend’s brother lives there and was taking us around, so we ended up getting pretty much everything on the menu and sharing it. We went from macaroni and cheese, meatballs, to sweet plantains. It is such a great all around restaurant with a Latin American twist. Little Man Ice Cream: I can’t travel without trying some of the city’s best ice cream. This was for sure on my list and it just so happened to be next door to Linger and opened at 11 am. We were able to grab some ice cream right when it opened so we missed the line. There is typically a line which is common for all really great ice cream places. The place is also cute for photos which is always a plus because the whole place is shaped in a milk jug. The flavors are classic and yummy, and they also are one of those companies that support a great cause. With every scoop purchased they donate rice and beans or other essentials to a community in need all around the world. To Do
There is so much to do in Denver, that trying to combine it into 1 single weekend is hard to do. We wanted to be able to explore, yet see some great sights while we were there. The weather was so refreshing after it being about 90 degrees in Houston, so we knew we wanted to try to be outside as much as possible. Depending on the time of year you go, will depend how much you stay outside. The weather was in the low 40’s and high 50’s which was absolutely amazing when we went. Go on a Brewery Tour: After we checked into our hotel, this was the first thing we did and it was one of my favorites. Instead of doing our own tour, we decided to do one that was already planned and included transportation as well. The one we completed was called Brews and Views which was one of the only ones where we were able to explore the cute mountain towns as well. The entire tour was about 4 hours and included a small group, a bus tour, and drinks at 3 different breweries. We went to Golden and Evergreen for 2 of the breweries and the views were breathtaking. Not only were the views great, but the breweries were more micro breweries and they did not skimp on the tastings. I would highly recommend doing this as a must on your trip. Check out the Artwork in RiNo: This is such a cute area where we ended up hanging out on both Saturday and Sunday night. One thing which is so unique other than the tons of restaurants/bars, is the artwork on all of the buildings in the area. There is some artwork murals here in Houston, but it is nothing like what was in RiNo. I think this is true talent, and just exploring through the area and taking pictures is completely worth it. Hike and Visit Red Rocks Amphitheatre: I had seen so many photos of this one-of-a-kind venue and had to see it in real life. We went out here after brunch and ice cream on Sunday, and knew that we were ready to work off the calories. It is such a beautiful piece of nature. If you are also looking for a great hike, just walking up the stairs gives you that burn alone. We decided to also hike one of the trails on the grounds which was just challenging enough given the altitude. It was nice to enjoy the nature and the cliffs and rocks. Hiking should for sure be on your list if you want to explore nature and enjoy the great weather. Go to the Molly Brown House Museum: We didn’t get time to do this as the museum is closed on Sundays and we had other things planned, but this looked like a cute little place to visit. I am a Titanic fan and Molly Brown was a survivor. This tour talks about the time period, shows her house, and what it was like in the early 1900’s. The tour guide is even dressed up in the time period apparently which seems like such a fun tour. Shop on Cherry Street: This area of Denver has lots of shops and is a cute little restaurant area as well. It reminds me a lot of Rice Village in Houston. I went to Inspyre Boutique here where I got the cutest little headband that is so trendy right now. They have so many shops around, and just strolling and window shopping before dinner one night is ideal! To Drink
When I say there were a lot of bars and restaurants, there were a ton that I wanted to try and were able to go to quite a few. One thing that makes Denver unique other than their neighborhoods are some speakeasy bars. When I went to Tulsa I went to a fun one, and now always try to scope them out wherever I travel to. There were so many great speakeasies that my friends told me about, or that we happened to Google and find. Besides of course the great beer, these cocktail destinations make the city. Millers & Rossi: A speakeasy of course had to be on the list and this one was tucked away in an art gallery in the RiNo area. I of course had to video tape going into each of these bars because the journey was just as great as the actual drinks. We got some bites here and a cocktail before heading to dinner the first night. Cooper Lounge: This is located in Union Station and we went here after dinner at Mercantile because it was right upstairs. It is hidden and has that old Hollywood feel to it. It is tucked away and you get away from all of the hustle and bustle of the station downstairs. The cocktails and service are great, and try the chocolate martini if you go! Meadowlark: We sat on the patio at this low key bar that was one of my friend’s favorite places. They serve funky drinks right up my alley like a drink with mezcal and jalapeño. We also ordered their brussel sprouts for a quick nibble before going to dinner at Work & Class. Death & Co: This was one of my favorite bars that we went to in Denver. It is located in the Ramble Hotel and is always popping. We went here on a Sunday night after dinner, and I was glad we were able to get a table. Not only is the decor super chic and old world vintage all mixed together, but they have a great roof top section as well. I hear that the rooftop gets packed and the signs and decor are a great place to take photos next to. I stuck with mezcal and ordered their love bug drink with pineapple, lime, and mezcal which they rotate seasonally. Retrograde: You think the first speakeasy bar above sounded neat, this one is actually located in a pretty great ice cream shop. We first ordered our ice cream and then our friend said you go to the cooler door, flick the light up, and then you are greeted to go back to the hidden bar behind the cooler. I think this was my favorite experience out of any speakeasy, and people eating ice cream were so confused. You have that one-on-one service and they truly are mixologists. Even if you don’t drink, I would still check out this place just for the experience. Williams & Graham: This was another speakeasy, but we didn’t have time to make it to this one. It is located in the LoHi area of Denver and is one of the top cocktail bars in the country. It is located in a corner book store with hand-crafted cocktails. The reservations are hard to get and it gets packed, so keep that in mind as well.
Denver was such a great city, and I can’t wait to go back. I had only just been to the airport and had gone to Breckenridge previously. If you live in Texas it is only over a 2 hour plane ride, which is not bad at all. Between the different neighborhoods, food scene, and overall cleanliness I would say it was a pretty great city. Remember the altitude can affect everyone differently, and make sure to plan accordingly with allergy medicine, etc. I have never been on a weekend trip anywhere lately where I think “aww, man I didn’t get to make it to that hot spot.” There is always next time where I can check out even more of the cool places, which I am thinking will be here before I know it! (Visited 35 times, 9 visits today) May 30, 2019 in Travel You Might Also Like

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5 Great Value Cities

This article is from the June 2019 issue of Lonely Planet Magazine India. Photographer: Aliaksei Skreidzeleu/123RF
Some world cities are known for being good value, others are surprisingly paisa vasool . Here are five cities from across the globe that will be magnanimous in laying themselves out for you and will be kind to your wallet
Words AISHWARYA MENON
01 . POKHARA, NEPAL Nepal is many things to many travellers: a country with great trekking and backpacking opportunities, a wildlife magnet, and a cultural draw. We’ve picked Pokhara because it’s got tonnes to see and do… It’s also a major hub for the hordes of trekkers looking to take on the Annapurna Ranges.
GREAT-VALUE STAYS The volume of travellers passing through Pokhara ensures great stay options on a budget.
Zostel Pokhara comes well equipped with a cool in-house restaurant, wi-fi and the option of air-conditioned dorms and private rooms; expect a fun-filled atmosphere and a chilled crowd .
The beautiful stone cottages at Mum’s Garden Resort, just off the lakeside in Baidam, are inviting and the perfect spot at which to unwind. For the best lake views, choose the rooms on the first floor .
Located just five minutes from Phewa Lake, Hotel Middle Path & Spa offers panoramic views of the Pokhara mountains from its rooms and rooftop .
GREAT-VALUE FOOD & DRINK Pokhara offers a delightful mix of Indian, Chinese, and Tibetan flavours.
BREAKFAST: Choose from an extensive menu of vegan, vegetarian and non-vegetarian options at Little Windows .
A perfect place to start your day, The Juicery serves cold-pressed juices and smoothies. Try the Summer Breeze, a mix of watermelon, mint, lemon and pomegranate .
Old Mike’s Kitchen is known both its idyllic lakeside setting and great food; it’s perfect for that post-trek breakfast. Choose from a variety of pancakes, burritos and salads .
LUNCH: Known for its eclectic setting and extensive menu, Fresh Elements has a large selection of European wines to make an already good lunch better – try the fish curry or anything off the grill .
Visit Natssul for a taste of Korea in Nepal. The colourful bibimbap or kimchi jjigae and bulgogi come recommended .
Bajeko Macha Mahal is a unique hole-in-the-wall restaurant that offers food free of white flour, white sugar and ajinomoto .
DINNER: The only Spanish-Nepali restaurant in Pokhara, El Bocaíto Español woos you with its romantic ambience. Choose from tapas , bocadillos , and paella (order in advance).
Tired? Overfull? Keep it light at Caffé Concerto, which enjoys the rep of being the best Italian eatery in Pokhara. Try the cioccolata calda (hot chocolate) and homemade gelato .
Many consider the Krazy Gecko Bar & Resto a must-visit in Pokhara – for its good food and great music .
GREAT-VALUE EXPERIENCES Trek for two to three hours to the Peace Stupa and enjoy the beautiful views of the city and the lake en route . Go boating on Phewa Lake . Rent a two-wheeler and ride 15km from the city centre to Bejnas Lake. It’s smaller than Phewa, but more scenic and less touristy. For the best view of the lake, head to the viewpoint at the Bejnas Information Centre near Sundarindanda . Splurge a littleon the Upper Seti river rafting experience with Extreme River Rafting . Sign up for some stand-up paddle boarding on Phewa Lake.
GREAT-VALUE BUYS
Silver Oaks Handicrafts is the place for handmade silver jewellery – bracelets, rings and earrings in contemporary, traditional and classic .
2 . MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES At first glance, Manila might seem like just another congested city with both skyscrapers and shanty towns, but take the trouble to go past first appearances and you’ll find plenty of interesting sights and sounds.
GREAT-VALUE STAYS Situated in Makati City, Hotel Sogo EDSA Guadalupe is a short drive from Ortigas Centre and SM Mall of Asia – a great base for visitors looking to explore the area’s attractions . Also in Makati City, Ritz Astor Hotel offers decent amenities, air-conditioned rooms and an excellent in-house restaurant.
Offering a shuttle to Ninoy Aquino International Airport, as well as free wi-fi, Oxford Suites Makati is a comfortable place at which to stay in Makati City, minutes away from cool eateries and nightlife options.
GREAT-VALUE FOOD & DRINK Filipino cuisine can be exotic and sometimes daunting, but it’s also usually delicious and worth trying…
BREAKFAST: Apartment 1B is known to serve some of the best breakfasts in Makati; try the Eggs Benedict.
Wildflour Café + Bakery is on everyone’s must-eat-at list in Manila. Pick from the many oven-fresh breads and pastries .
Panaderya Toyo is the newest restaurant specialising in breakfasts; it’s already established a reputation for serving one of the best pan de sal (bread rolls) in town .
LUNCH: Nikkei claims to be the first Peruvian-Japanese sushi bar in Manila and is great for a relaxed lunch .
A Singaporean transplant, Char Dining PH specialises in Cantonese food with Western influences. The char siew is a must-try.
A hidden gem that’s home to Spanish comfort food, Relik has live music and quiz nights .
DINNER: Hops & Brews offers rich comfort food with international flavours, as well as pastries, cakes and beer. The lunch specials include a main dish, soup, salad and iced tea.
Red Baron Ribs and Steaks defines itself as a VFM casual dining restaurant that serves good wholesome meals! Don’t miss the lamb steaks and.
Dong Bei Dumplings makes a good dinner option .
GREAT-VALUE EXPERIENCES If you like to surround yourself with nature and get away from the city, Luneta Park is perfect! Just sit back and relax. Manila Ocean Park is your best bet to taste the island life without spending too much. If you’re fond of science, The Mind Museum, a project by the non-profit Bonifacio Art Foundation, will surely intrigue . You cannot come to Manila and not visit China Town! Hire a jeepney and set out exploring. Step into the world of seafood at Pasay Seafood Market. As the custom goes, you buy what you want from these stalls and take it to the restaurants outside the market for them to prepare it as per your taste .
GREAT-VALUE BUYS Like yellow cabs in New York and red double-decker buses in the UK, jeepneys are intrinsic to Filipino culture. Mini jeepney souvenirs come in a variety of sizes, and can be found at any toy shop in Manila.
To know more about the other three cities that will be kind to your wallet, check out LPMI’s June 2019 issue. Pick up a copy from your newsstand or click to subscribe via Zinio or Magzter .

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The Foodies Insider guide to West Dorset

Travel 30th May 2019 With a reputation as one of the finest foodie destinations within the UK, this beautiful stretch of Jurassic Coast is a jewel in the crown of the great British shores. Combining stunning scenery and breath-taking beaches – which have seen the likes of TV’s Broadchurch as well as star-studded movie Ammonite being filmed there – with top quality food, the appeal of this corner of the country is clear.
The winning combination of fresh, salty sea air with plenty of things to see and do along with mouth-watering menus and outstanding local food producers is hard to resist. If you’re thinking of paying a visit anytime soon, read on to get the inside scoop on the tops 10 places to eat in the area, covering every taste and budget from nationally acclaimed chef’s restaurant to street stalls… Swim, Lyme Regis’s trendy Café Bar by the sea with awesome views.
After the pre-requisite dip in the sea and sunning yourself on the glorious beaches, Swim is the perfect place to relax and unwind for lunch. Here you can enjoy some stunning views over the Jurassic Coast as well as delicious food, great cocktails and a big selection of craft beers. Together with its sister, Rise, in West Bay, restauranteurs Richard and Nikki Cooper have created a winning formula of cool but comfortable. Rachel’s West Bay Rachel’s, West Bay.
Loved by locals and tourists alike, here you can delight in famously good chowders and seafood from the harbourside kiosk in West Bay. Not to be missed! Brassica, Beaminster
Pretty interiors as well as outstanding local food cooked by Cass Titcombe make this restaurant a winner. With a real emphasis on quality ingredients, the vast majority of the menu is organic and sourced from within a 15-mile radius, with some of the freshest fish dishes you will ever taste. The Ollerod, Beaminster The Ollerod, Beaminster
It’s extraordinary that such a small town like Beaminster should have not one but two nationally-acclaimed restaurants, but The Ollerod doesn’t disappoint. Again, with a focus on using fine, fresh, local ingredients as well as produce from their own kitchen garden, the menu’s quality is superb.
5 Spice & Rice, Bridport market. This market stall in Bridport market produces some of the best Indian curries in the country. Local ingredients in big bubbling pots of freshly prepared curry – delicious! Baboo Gelato, West Bay and Lyme Regis kiosks.
A trip to the seaside wouldn’t be complete without ice cream! West Dorset’s cult gelato brand has won several awards including Taste of the West Gold. With an emphasis on using local, fresh ingredients in the yummy range of gelato and sorbets, all handmade in the county. Dorshi, Bridport.
Stylish, grown-up Asian food using home-grown ingredients – this is exactly how fusion food should be. The dumplings are not to be missed but you really can’t go wrong with this menu! Klin Klan’s Thai Cuisine, West Bay.
This is a popular pop-up Thai trailer at The Durbeyfield guesthouse three times a week offering great value, authentic Thai fare from the classic green curry to the more locally inspired Thai Smoked Fish Chowder. Check it out on Facebook for operating times. Station Kitchen by Sausage & Pear, West Bay.
Want to eat excellent food in an exotically refurbished railway carriage? Step this way to indulge in hearty, rustic dishes using fresh, local ingredients. HIX Oyster & Fish House HIX Oyster & Fish House, Lyme Regis.
The renowned, luxurious yet informal eatery from the critically acclaimed chef, restaurateur and Dorset native Mark Hix. Serving grown up seafood in a truly idyllic location above the Cobb (Lyme Regis harbour), this is another must try when you’re in the area.

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Northern Ireland

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The campaigns of violence have become known popularly as The Troubles. Since the signing of the Belfast Agreement in 1998, many paramilitary campaigns have either been on ceasefire or have declared their war to be over. Geography Map of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland covers 5,459 square miles (14,139 square kilometers), about a sixth of the island’s total area, or a little larger than the U.S. state of Maryland .
Rathlin, off the Antrim coast, is the largest of Northern Ireland’s islands. Strangford Lough is the largest inlet in the British Isles, covering 150 square kilometers.
Extensive drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim and particularly Down, result from ice coverage for most of the last Ice age . The volcanic activity which created the Antrim Plateau also formed the eerily geometric pillars of the Giant’s Causeway on the north Antrim coast. Also in north Antrim are the Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge, Mussenden Temple and the Glens of Antrim.
There are substantial uplands in the Sperrin Mountains (an extension of the Caledonian fold mountains) with extensive gold deposits, granite Mourne Mountains, and basalt Antrim Plateau, as well as smaller ranges in South Armagh and along the Fermanagh–Tyrone border. None of the hills are especially high, with Slieve Donard in the dramatic Mournes reaching 2782 feet, (848 meters), Northern Ireland’s highest point. Belfast’s most prominent peak is Cave Hill. Fair Head seen from Ballycastle
The whole of Northern Ireland has a temperate maritime climate, rather wetter in the west than the east, although cloud cover is persistent across the region. The weather is unpredictable at all times of the year, and although the seasons are distinct, they are considerably less pronounced than in interior Europe or the eastern seaboard of North America. Average daytime maximums in Belfast are 43.7°F (6.5°C) in January and 63.5°F (17.5°C) in July. The damp climate and extensive deforestation in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries resulted in much of the region being covered in rich green grassland.
The centerpiece of Northern Ireland’s geography is Lough Neagh, at 151 square miles (392 square kilometers) the largest freshwater lake both on the island of Ireland and in the British Isles. A second extensive lake system is centered on Lower and Upper Lough Erne in Fermanagh.
The Lower and Upper River Bann, River Foyle and River Blackwater form extensive fertile lowlands, with excellent arable land also found in North and East Down, although much of the hill country is marginal and suitable largely for animal husbandry .
Notable is the absence of trees . Most of the land has been plowed, drained, and cultivated for centuries. About five percent of the land was forested in 2007, most planted by the state, and economically unimportant, although it helps to diversify the landscape. View of Belfast from Queens University Ashby Building. The main Laynon Building of Queen’s University is in the foreground. The yellow fasciad Belfast City Hospital is visible in the center background, with the city’s current tallest building Windsor House in the right background.
The fauna of Northern Ireland is similar to that of Great Britain , with fewer species. Only the Irish stoat, the Irish hare, and three species of birds are exclusively Irish, although the region is rich in fish , particularly pike , perch , trout , and salmon . There are about 40 nature reserves and several bird sanctuaries.
Natural hazards include winter windstorms and floods. Environmental issues include sewage treatment, that the European Commission in 2003 alleged was inadequate.
The valley of the River Lagan is dominated by Northern Ireland’s capital city, Belfast, whose metropolitan area included 276,459 people in 2001, over a third of the population of Northern Ireland. With heavy urbanization and industrialization along the Lagan Valley and both shores of Belfast Lough, it is the largest city in Northern Ireland and the province of Ulster, and the second-largest city on the island of Ireland (after Dublin ).Other cities include Armagh, Londonderry, Lisburn, and Newry. History Stone age
During the Ice Age , until about 9000 years ago, and most of Ireland was covered with ice. Sea-levels were lower then, and Ireland, as with its neighbor Britain, instead of being islands, were part of a greater continental Europe. Mesolithic middle stone age inhabitants arrived some time after 8000 B.C.E. About 4000 B.C.E. , sheep, goats, cattle and cereals were imported from southwest continental Europe. A remnant, dating date from around 3000 B.C.E. , is the Giant’s Ring, a henge monument at Ballynahatty, near [Belfast]], which consists of a circular enclosure, 590 feet (200 meters) in diameter, surrounded with an 15 feet (four-meter) high earthwork bank with five entrances, and a small neolithic passage grave slightly off-center. Celtic colonization
The main Celtic arrivals occurred in the Iron Age. The Celts , an Indo-European group who are thought to have originated in the second millennium B.C.E. in east-central Europe, are traditionally thought to have colonized Ireland in a series of waves between the eighth and first centuries B.C.E. , with the Gaels, the last wave of Celts, conquering the island.
The Romans referred to Ireland as Hibernia. Ptolemy in 100 C.E. recorded Ireland’s geography and tribes. Ireland was never formally a part of the Roman Empire . The Five Fifths Ring fort on the island of Inishmaan, Aran Islands, Ireland. Photograph by Jonathan Leonard.
Ireland was organized into a number of independent petty kingdoms, or tuatha (clans), each with an elected king. The country coalesced into five groups of tuatha, known as the Five Fifths (Cuíg Cuígí), about the beginning of the Christian era. These were Ulster, Meath, Leinster, Munster, and Connaught.
Each king was surrounded by an aristocracy, with clearly defined land and property rights, and whose main wealth was in cattle. Céilí, or clients supported greater landowners by tilling the soil and tending the cattle. Individual families were the basic units of society, both to control land and enforce the law.
Society was based on cattle rearing and agriculture. The principal crops were wheat, barley, oats, flax, and hay. Plows drawn by oxen were used to till the land. Sheep were bred for wool, and pigs for slaughter. Fishing, hunting, fowling, and trapping provided further food. Dwellings were built by the post-and-wattle technique, and some were situated within ring forts.
Each of the Five Fifths had its own king, although Ulster in the north was dominant at first. Niall Noigiallach (died c.450/455) laid the basis for the Uí Néill dynasty’s hegemony, which ruled over much of western, northern and central Ireland from their base in Tír Eóghain ( Eoghan’s Country ) – modern County Tyrone. By the time he died, hegemony had passed to his midland kingdom of Meath. In the sixth century, descendants of Niall, ruling at Tara in northern Leinster, claimed to be overkings of Ulster, Connaught, and Meath, and later, they claimed to be kings of all of Ireland. Raids on England
From the mid-third century C.E. , the Irish, who were at that time called Scoti rather than the older term Hiberni carried out frequent raiding expeditions on England. Raids became incessant in the second half of the fourth century, when Roman power in Britain was beginning to crumble. The Irish settled along the west coast of Britain, Wales and Scotland. Saints Palladius and Patrick St Patrick.
According to early medieval chronicles, in 431, Bishop Palladius arrived in Ireland on a mission from Pope Celestine to minister to the Irish “already believing in Christ.” The same chronicles record that Saint Patrick , Ireland’s patron saint, arrived in 432. There is continued debate over the missions of Palladius and Patrick. Palladius most likely went to Leinster, while Patrick went to Ulster, where he probably spent time in captivity as a young man. He established his center in Armagh, which remained the primatial see of the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland and the Protestant Church of Ireland.
Patrick is traditionally credited with preserving the tribal and social patterns of the Irish, codifying their laws and changing only those that conflicted with Christian practices. He is also credited with introducing the Roman alphabet, which enabled Irish monks to preserve parts of the extensive Celtic oral literature. The historicity of these claims remains the subject of debate. There were Christians in Ireland long before Patrick came, and pagans long after he died. However, it is undoubtedly true that Patrick played a crucial role in transforming Irish society.
The druid tradition collapsed in the face of the spread of the new religion. Irish Christian scholars excelled in the study of Latin and Greek learning and Christian theology in the monasteries that flourished, preserving Latin and Greek learning during the Early Middle Ages . The arts of manuscript illumination, metalworking, and sculpture flourished and produced such treasures as the Book of Kells , ornate jewelery, and the many carved stone crosses that dot the island. Irish monasticism This page (folio 292r) of the Book of Kells contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John .
Christian settlements in Ireland were loosely linked, usually under the auspices of a great saint. By the late sixth century, numerous Irishmen devoted themselves to an austere existence as monks, hermits, and as missionaries to pagan tribes in Scotland, the north of England, and in west-central Europe. A comprehensive monastic system developed in Ireland, partly through the influenced by Celtic monasteries in Britain, through the sixth and seventh centuries.
The monasteries became notable centers of learning. Christianity brought Latin, Irish scribes produced manuscripts written in the Insular style, which spread to Anglo-Saxon England and to Irish monasteries on the European continent. Initial letters were illuminated. The most famous Irish manuscript is the Book of Kells , a copy of the four Gospels probably dating from the late eighth century, while the earliest surviving illuminated manuscript is the Book of Durrow , probably made 100 years earlier. Viking raiders
The first recorded Viking raid in Irish history occurred in 795 when Vikings from Norway looted the island of Lambay, located off the Dublin coast. Early raids, which were small in scale and quick, interrupted the golden age of Christian Irish culture, and led to waves of Viking raiders plundering monasteries and towns. By the early 840s, the Vikings began to establish settlements in Limerick, Waterford, Wexford, Cork, Arklow and most famously, Dublin . The Vikings became traders and their towns became a new part of the life of the country. However, the Vikings never achieved total domination of Ireland, often fighting for and against various Irish kings, such as Flann Sinna, Cerball mac Dúnlainge and Niall Glúndub. Ultimately they were suborned by King Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill of Meath at the battle of Tara in 980. First king of Ireland Brian Boru, the first king of all Ireland.
Two branches of Niall’s descendants, the Cenél nEogain, of the northern Uí Néill, and the Clan Cholmáin, of the southern Uí Néill, alternated as kings of Ireland from 734 to 1002. Brian Boru (941 – 1014) became the first high king of all Ireland (árd rí Éireann) in 1002. King Brian Boru subsequently united most of the Irish Kings and Chieftains to defeat the Danish King of Dublin, who led an army of Irish and Vikings , at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. The Anglo-Norman invasion The east wall and keep of Carrickfergus Castle.
By the twelfth century, power was exercised by the heads of a few regional dynasties vying against each other for supremacy over the whole island. One of these, the King of Leinster Diarmait Mac Murchada was forcibly exiled from his kingdom by the new High King, Ruaidri mac Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair. Fleeing to Aquitaine, Diarmait obtained permission from Henry II to use the Norman forces to regain his kingdom. The first Norman knight landed in Ireland in 1167, followed by the main forces of Normans, Welsh and Flemings in Wexford in 1169.
By 1177 a force under John de Courci, became established in northern County Down and southern County Antrim, and built formidable castles at Downpatrick and Carrickfergus.
Within a short time Waterford and Dublin were under the control of Diarmait, who named his son-in-law, Richard de Clare, heir to his kingdom. This caused consternation to King Henry II of England, who feared the establishment of a rival Norman state in Ireland. Accordingly, he resolved to establish his authority.
With the authority of the papal bull Laudabiliter from Adrian IV , Henry landed with a large fleet at Waterford in 1171, becoming the first King of England to set foot on Irish soil. Henry awarded his Irish territories to his younger son John with the title Dominus Hiberniae (“Lord of Ireland”). When John unexpectedly succeeded his brother as King John , the “Lordship of Ireland” fell directly under the English Crown.
De Courci became too independent so King John of England created an earldom of Ulster in 1205 and conferred it upon Hugh de Lacy (1176-1243), who became known as the earl of Ulster. Ireland in 1014: a patch-work of rival kingdoms. The extent of Norman control of Ireland in 1300. The Lordship of Ireland
Initially the Normans controlled the entire east coast, from Waterford up to eastern Ulster and penetrated as far west as Galway, Kerry and Mayo. The most powerful lords were the great Hiberno-Norman Lord of Leinster from 1171, Earl of Meath from 1172, Earl of Ulster from 1205, Earl of Connaught from 1236, Earl of Kildare from 1316, the Earl of Ormonde from 1328, and the Earl of Desmond from 1329. The lords controlled vast territories, known as Liberties, which functioned as self-administered jurisdictions with the Lordship of Ireland owing feudal fealty to the King in London . The first Lord of Ireland was King John, who visited Ireland in 1185 and 1210 and helped consolidate the Norman controlled areas, while at the same time ensuring that the many Irish kings swore fealty to him.
The Norman-Irish established a feudal system characterized by baronies, manors, towns, and large land-owning monastic communities. King John established a civil government independent of the feudal lords. The country was divided into counties for administrative purposes, English law was introduced, and attempts were made to reduce the feudal liberties, which were lands held in the personal control of aristocratic families and the church. The Irish Parliament paralleled that of its English counterpart.
Throughout the thirteenth century the policy of the English Kings was to weaken the power of the Norman Lords in Ireland. Gaelic resurgence The Black Death rapidly spread along the major European sea and land trade routes. It reached Ireland in 1348 and decimated the Hiberno-Norman urban settlements. The extent of Anglo-Irish control of Ireland in 1450, showing lands recaptured by native Irish (green), and lands held by Anglo-Irish lords (blue) and the English king (red).
By 1261 the weakening of the Anglo-Normans had become manifest when Fineen Mac Carthy defeated a Norman army at the Battle of Callann, County Kerry, and killed John fitz Thomas, Lord of Desmond, his son Maurice fitz John, and eight other Barons. In 1315, Edward Bruce of Scotland invaded Ireland, gaining the support of many Gaelic lords against the English. Although Bruce was eventually defeated at the Battle of Faughart, the war caused a great deal of destruction, especially around Dublin. In this chaotic situation, local Irish lords won back large amounts of land.
The Black Death arrived in Ireland in 1348. Because most of the English and Norman inhabitants of Ireland lived in towns and villages, the plague hit them far harder than it did the native Irish, who lived in more dispersed rural settlements. After it had passed, Gaelic Irish language and customs came to dominate the country again. The English-controlled area shrunk back to the Pale, a fortified area around Dublin that ran through the counties of Louth, Meath, Kildare and Wicklow and the Earldoms of Kildare, Ormonde and Desmond.
Outside the Pale, the Hiberno-Norman lords adopted the Irish language and customs, becoming known as the Old English, and in the words of a contemporary English commentator, became “more Irish than the Irish themselves.”
By the end of the fifteenth century, central English authority in Ireland had all but disappeared. England’s attentions were diverted by its Wars of the Roses (civil war). The Lordship of Ireland lay in the hands of the powerful Fitzgerald Earl of Kildare, who dominated the country by means of military force and alliances with lords and clans around Ireland. Around the country, local Gaelic and Gaelicized lords expanded their powers at the expense of the English government in Dublin. Re-conquest and rebellion Henry VIII of England.
After Henry VIII of England broke English Catholicism from Rome in 1532, the English, the Welsh and, later, the Scots accepted Protestantism , but the Irish remained Catholic. The Fitzgerald dynasty of Kildare had invited Burgundian troops into Dublin to crown the Yorkist pretender, Lambert Simnel as King of England in 1497, and again in 1536, Silken Thomas Fitzgerald went into open rebellion against the crown. Having put down this rebellion, from 1536, Henry VIII decided to re-conquer Ireland, and bring Ireland under English government control so the island would not become a base for future rebellions or foreign invasions of England. In 1541, Henry upgraded Ireland from a lordship to a full Kingdom, and Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland at a meeting of the Irish Parliament.
In the 1600s, Ulster was the last redoubt of the traditional Gaelic way of life. Following the defeat of the Irish forces in the Nine Years War (1594–1603) at the battle of Kinsale (1601), Elizabeth I ‘s English forces succeeded in subjugating Ulster and all of Ireland. The Gaelic leaders of Ulster, the O’Neills and O’Donnells, finding their power under English suzerainty limited, decamped en masse in 1607 (the Flight of the Earls) to Roman Catholic Europe. This allowed the Crown to settle Ulster with more loyal English and Scottish planters, a process which began in earnest in 1610. Plantation of Ulster
The Plantation of Ulster, run by the government, settled only the counties confiscated from those Irish families that had taken part in the Nine Years War. The Crown dispossessed thousands of the native Irish, who were forced to move to poorer land. Counties Donegal, Tyrone, Armagh, Cavan, Londonderry and Fermanagh comprised the official plantation. Confiscated territory was granted to new landowners provided they would establish settlers as their tenants, and that they would introduce English law and the Protestant religion.
The most extensive settlement in Ulster of English, Scots and Welsh—as well as Protestants from throughout the European continent—occurred in Antrim and Down. These counties, though not officially planted, had suffered de-population during the war and proved attractive to settlers from nearby Scotland. Catholic uprising After Irish Catholic rebellion and civil war, Oliver Cromwell, on behalf of the English Commonwealth, re-conquered Ireland and transferred land ownership to Protestant colonists.
Unofficial settlement continued well into the eighteenth century, interrupted only by the Catholic uprising of 1641. This rebellion quickly degenerated into attacks on Protestant settlers. Dispossessed Catholics slaughtered thousands of Protestants, an event which remains strong in Ulster Protestant folk-memory. In the ensuing wars, from 1641-1653, fought against the background of civil war in England, Scotland and Ireland, Ulster became a battleground between the Protestant settlers and the native Irish Catholics.
In 1646, the Irish Catholic army under Owen Roe O’Neill inflicted a bloody defeat on a Scottish Covenanter army at Benburb in County Tyrone, but the Catholic forces failed to follow up their victory and the war lapsed into stalemate. The war in Ulster ended with the defeat of the Irish Catholic army at the Battle of Scarrifholis on the western outskirts of Letterkenny, County Donegal, in 1650 and the occupation of the province by Oliver Cromwell ‘s New Model Army. The atrocities committed by all sides in the war poisoned the relationships between Ulster’s ethno-religious communities for generations afterwards. The Williamite war King James VII and II.
Forty years later, in 1688-1691, conflict flared in the Williamite war in Ireland, when Irish Catholics (“Jacobites”) supported James II (deposed in the Glorious Revolution ) and Ulster Protestants (Williamites) backed William of Orange . At the start of the war, Irish Catholic Jacobites controlled all of Ireland for James, with the exception of the Protestant strongholds at Derry and at Enniskillen in Ulster. The Jacobites besieged Derry from December 1688 to July 1689, when a Williamite army from Britain relieved the city. The Protestant Williamite fighters based in Enniskillen defeated another Jacobite army at the battle of Newtownbutler on July 28, 1689.
Thereafter, Ulster remained firmly under Williamite control and William’s forces completed their conquest of the rest of Ireland in the next two years. Ulster Protestant irregulars known as “Enniskilleners” served with the Williamite forces. The war provided Protestant loyalists with the iconic victories of the Siege of Derry, the Battle of the Boyne (July 1, 1690) and the Battle of Aughrim (July 12, 1691), all of which continue to be commemorated.
The Williamite victory ensured British and Protestant supremacy. Roman Catholics (descended from the indigenous Irish) and Presbyterians (mainly descended from Scottish planters, but also from indigenous Irishmen who converted to Presbyterianism) both suffered discrimination under the Penal Laws, which gave full political rights only to Anglican Protestants (mostly descended from English settlers). In the 1690s, Scottish Presbyterians became a majority in Ulster, tens of thousands of them having emigrated there to escape a famine in Scotland. Refuge for Huguenots
Ulster became a refuge for Huguenots , who were Protestants who fled from France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Huguenots brought commercial and industrial skills that helped the development of linen cloth manufacture, which in turn established a foundation for the later industrialization of Belfast and the Lagan valley. Famine, emigration Starving Irish family during the potato famine.
Some absentee landlords managed some of their estates inefficiently, and food tended to be produced for export rather than for domestic consumption. Two very cold winters led directly to the Great Irish Famine (1740-1741), which killed about 400,000 people; all of Europe was affected. In addition, Irish exports were reduced by the Navigation Acts from the 1660s, which placed tariffs on Irish produce entering England, but exempted English goods from tariffs on entering Ireland.
Considerable numbers of Ulster-Scots just a few generations after arriving in Ulster migrated to the North American colonies throughout the eighteenth century (250,000 settled in what would become the United States between 1717 and 1770 alone). According to Kerby Miller, Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (1988), Protestants were one-third of the population of Ireland, but three-quarters of all emigrants from 1700 to 1776; 70 percent of these Protestants were Presbyterians. Sectarian violence
With the relaxation of the Penal Laws and as Catholics began to purchase land and involve themselves in the linen trade. Protestants, including Presbyterians, who in some parts of the province had come to identify with the Catholic community, used violence to intimidate Catholics who tried to enter the linen trade.
In the 1790s, many Catholics and Presbyterians, in opposition to Anglican domination and inspired by the American and French revolutions, joined together in the United Irishmen movement. This group (founded in Belfast in 1791) dedicated itself to founding a non-sectarian and independent Irish republic. The United Irishmen had particular strength in Belfast, Antrim and Down.
A pitched battle between Protestant and Catholic factions at the Diamond (near Loughgall) in September 1795, between the rival “Defenders” (Catholic) and “Peep O’Day Boys” (Anglican), led to the founding of the Orange Society (later known as the Orange Order), which was devoted to maintaining British rule and Protestant ascendancy.
A series of rebellions in 1798, inspired by the United Irishmen, attracted ineffectual French support and brutal British repression. About 35,000 people were killed, and confidence in the relatively independent Irish Parliament was shaken. Union with Great Britain Daniel O’Connell.
In response to the rebellions, Irish self-government was abolished by the Act of Union on January 1, 1801, which merged Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain and transferred Irish representation to the British Parliament at Westminster in London. Part of the agreement was that discrimination against Catholics, Presbyterians, and others would end (Catholic Emancipation).
However, King George III controversially blocked any change. In 1823, an enterprising Catholic lawyer, Daniel O’Connell , known as “the Great Liberator” began a successful campaign to achieve emancipation, which was finally conceded in 1829. He later led an unsuccessful campaign for “Repeal of the Act of Union.” Second great famine Michael Davitt c. 1878
Potato blight was blamed for the second great famines An Gorta Mór, which struck severely in the period 1845-1849, leading to mass starvation and emigration. The population dropped from over eight million before the famine to 4.4 million in 1911. The Irish language, once the spoken language of the entire island, declined in use sharply in the nineteenth century as a result of the famine and the creation of the National School education system.
A series of violent rebellions by Irish republicans took place in 1803, under Robert Emmet; in 1848 a rebellion by the Young Irelanders, most prominent among them, Thomas Francis Meagher; and in 1867, another insurrection by the Irish Republican Brotherhood. All failed, but physical force nationalism remained an undercurrent in the nineteenth century.
The Land League under Michael Davitt demanded what became known as the 3 Fs; Fair rent, free sale, fixity of tenure. The Wyndham Land Purchase Act (1903) which broke up large estates and gradually gave rural landholders and tenants ownership of the lands, effectively ended absentee landlordism. Ulster prospers The RMS Titanic , Northern Ireland’s most famous manufacturing export, being admired by Harland and Wolff shipyard workers before its launch.
In the nineteenth century, textile manufacture, both cotton and linen, and a shipbuilding industry centered in Belfast and the Lagan valley, brought an economy and culture very different from that of the heavily rural and agricultural south. In the latter part of the century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city on the island. Belfast became famous for the construction of the RMS Titanic . Towards home rule Sir Edward Carson signing the Solemn League and Covenant
In the 1870s the issue of Irish self-government again became a focus of debate under Protestant landowner, Charles Stewart Parnell and the Irish Parliamentary Party of which he was founder. British prime minister William Gladstone , of the Conservative Party, introduced the first Home Rule Bill in Parliament in 1886. The measure was defeated, but it was the start of the Nationalist-Unionist split. Ulster Protestants opposed home rule, not trusting politicians from the Catholic agrarian south and west to support the more industrial economy of Ulster. Unionists supported union with Britain and tended to be Protestant, and nationalists advocated Irish self-government, and were usually Catholic. Out of this division, two opposing sectarian movements evolved, the Protestant Orange Order and the Catholic Ancient Order of Hibernians.
A second Home Rule Bill, also introduced by Gladstone, was defeated in 1893, while the third, and final, Home Rule Bill twice passed the House of Commons in 1912, when the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) held the balance of power in the Commons . Both both times it was defeated in the House of Lords. The Easter Proclamation, issued by the leaders of the Easter Rising.
To resist home rule, thousands of unionists, led by the Dublin-born barrister Sir Edward Carson and James Craig, signed the “Ulster Covenant” of 1912, pledging to resist Irish independence. This movement also saw the setting up of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), the first Irish paramilitary group. Irish nationalists created the Irish Volunteers – forerunners of the Irish Republican Army (IRA).
In 1914, the Home Rule Bill of 1912 passed the House of Commons for the third time, which meant ratification by the House of Lords was unnecessary. But when war broke out in Europe, the British government postponed the operation of the Home Rule Act until after the war. World War I
Nationalist leaders and the Irish Parliamentary Party, in order to ensure the implementation of Home Rule after the war, supported the British and Allied war effort against the Central Powers. Thousands of Ulstermen and Irishmen of all religions and sects volunteered and died. Before the war ended, Britain made two concerted efforts to implement Home Rule, one in May 1916 and again with the Irish Convention during 1917-1918, but the Irish sides (Nationalist, Unionist) were unable to agree to terms for the temporary or permanent exclusion of Ulster from its provisions.
A failed attempt was made to gain separate independence for Ireland with the 1916 Easter Rising , an insurrection in Dublin . Though support for the insurgents was small, the violence used in its suppression enflamed the situation in Ireland, and led to increased support of the rebels. In the December 1918 elections, most voted for Sinn Féin, the party of the rebels. Having won three-quarters of all the seats in Ireland, its MPs assembled in Dublin on January 21, 1919, to form a 32-county Irish Republic parliament, Dáil Éireann unilaterally, asserting sovereignty over the entire island. Partition Page from a draft of the Treaty, as annotated by Arthur Griffith Prime minister David Lloyd George.
The British coalition government of David Lloyd George passed the Government of Ireland Act in 1920, which created two modestly self-governing units: one comprising six of Ulster’s nine counties (later to be known as Northern Ireland), the other comprising the three remaining counties of Ulster together with the 23 counties of the rest of Ireland.
The outcome was somewhat paradoxical. The Protestant majority of the six counties of Northern Ireland, which wanted continuation of the union for all Ireland, it settled for Home Rule for the north. The Catholic majority of the 26 counties, for whom Home Rule had originally been intended, rejected it as short of complete independence, and fought a brief guerrilla war of independence with Britain. In Ulster, the fighting generally took the form of street battles between Protestants and Catholics in Belfast. Estimates suggest that about 600 civilians died in this communal violence, 58 percent of them Catholics.
In mid-1921, the Irish and British governments signed a truce that halted the war. In December 1921, representatives of both governments signed an Anglo-Irish Treaty. This abolished the Irish Republic and created the Irish Free State, a self-governing Dominion of the British Empire in the manner of Canada and Australia . Under the Treaty, Northern Ireland could opt out of the Free State and stay within the United Kingdom, which it promptly did. Six of the nine Ulster counties in the north-east formed Northern Ireland and the remaining three counties joined those of Leinster, Munster and Connacht to form Southern Ireland.
A boundary commission was established to review the borders between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland. A final report was never issued, and the boundaries of Northern Ireland were confirmed as those marked by the six counties of Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, and Tyrone.
In 1922, both parliaments ratified the treaty, formalizing independence for the 26-county Irish Free State (which went on to become the Republic of Ireland in 1949); while the six county Northern Ireland, gaining home rule for itself, remained part of the United Kingdom . For most of the next 75 years, each territory was strongly aligned to either Catholic or Protestant ideologies, although this was more marked in the six counties of Northern Ireland.
The treaty to sever the union divided the Irish Free State republican movement into anti-Treaty (who wanted to fight on until an Irish Republic was achieved) and pro-Treaty supporters (who accepted the Free State as a first step towards full independence and unity). Between 1922 and 1923 both sides fought the bloody Irish Civil War. The new Irish Free State government defeated the anti-Treaty remnant of the Irish Republican Army. Protestant rule Prime minister James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon.
Led by James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, who served as prime minister of Northern Ireland from 1921 to 1940, the Northern Ireland Parliament was dominated by a Protestant majority, dedicated to maintaining union with Great Britain. Roman Catholics were never able to mount an effective opposition, and faced discrimination in employment, public housing, education, and social services. Unionists maintained their political hold by manipulating electoral boundaries. Since Belfast’s industrial economy was unparalleled in the republic, lower class Catholics migrated there from the impoverished countryside—Belfast’s economic appeal surpassed the downsides of poor housing and religious intolerance.
The abolition of Proportional Representation in 1929 meant that the structure of party politics gave the Ulster Unionist Party a continual sizable majority in the Northern Ireland Parliament, leading to 50 years of one-party rule. While nationalist parties continued to retain the same number of seats that they had under Proportional Representation, the Northern Ireland Labour Party and various smaller leftist Unionist groups were smothered, meaning that it proved impossible for any group to sustain a challenge to the Ulster Unionist Party from within the Unionist section of the population.
In 1935, the worst violence since partition convulsed Belfast. After an Orange Order parade decided to return to the city center through a Catholic area instead of its usual route, the resulting violence left nine people dead. Over 2,000 Catholics were forced to leave their homes. World War II Junkers Ju-88.
Although the Republic of Ireland had declared its neutrality during World War II , Belfast, being part of the United Kingdom , was at war. The Belfast Blitz occurred on Easter Tuesday, April 15, 1941, when 200 German Luftwaffe bombers attacked Belfast, Northern Ireland . About 1,000 people were killed, and more were injured. Half of the houses in the city were destroyed. When the city’s gasworks exploded, there was a temporary vacuum , which smothered all fires and all life. Windows, slates, and all loose material were sucked from the houses. Those inside, mostly still lying in their beds, were lifeless, their eyes wide open with fright, and their mouths wide open seeking a breath. Outside of London , this was the greatest loss of life in a night raid during the Battle of Britain . About 100,000 of the population of 415,000 people were left homeless.
World War II brought some economic revival to the north, especially in ship and aircraft manufacture. Moreover, the social welfare provisions extended to Northern Ireland after the war by far exceeded the supports and protections available to individuals in the socially conservative south. Protest violence An Orange parade.
Northern Ireland was relatively peaceful for most of the period from 1924 until the late 1960s, except for some brief flurries of IRA activity. In the 1960s, moderate unionist prime minister Terence O’Neill tried to reform the system, but encountered strong opposition from fundamentalist Protestant leaders like Ian Paisley and from within his own party.
The increasing pressures from nationalists for reform and from extreme Loyalists for “No Surrender” led to the appearance of the civil rights movement , under figures such as Austin Currie and John Hume who would years later be named as joint-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize . It had some moderate Protestant support and membership, and a considerable dose of student radicalism after Northern Ireland was swept up in the world-wide communist-inspired student revolts of 1968. The Bogside in 2005. The area has been substantially redeveloped since 1969, with the demolition of much of the old slum housing.
Clashes between marchers and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) led to increased communal strife, culminating in a violent attack by a unionist mob (which included police reservists) on a march, at Burntollet, outside Derry on January 4, 1969, as the police looked on.
Widespread violence erupted after an Apprentice Boys march was forced through the nationalist Bogside area of Derry on August 12, 1969, by the RUC, which led to large scale disorder known as the Battle of the Bogside. Rioting continued until August 14, and in that time 1091 canisters, each containing 12.5g of CS gas and 14 canisters containing 50g of CS gas, were released into the densely-populated residential area by the RUC. Even more severe rioting broke out in Belfast and elsewhere in response to events in Derry. The British army were deployed by the UK Home Secretary James Callaghan two days later on August 14, 1969. The Troubles Protestant leader Ian Paisley. An IRA mural in Belfast depicting the hunger strikes of 1981. A mural depicting Bobby Sands, on the gable wall of the Sinn Féin headquarters on the Falls Road, Belfast. Republican leader Gerry Adams.
The Troubles is a term used to describe periodic communal violence involving Republican and Loyalist paramilitary organisations, the RUC, the British Army, and others from the late 1960s until the Belfast Agreement of April 10, 1998.
At first the soldiers, in August 1969, received a warm welcome from Nationalists, who hoped they would protect them from Loyalist attack (which the IRA, at that point a Marxist organization, had for ideological reasons declined to do). However, tensions rose throughout the following years, with an important milestone in the worsening relationship between the army and Nationalists being the Falls Curfew of July 3, 1970, when 3,000 British troops imposed a three-day curfew on the Lower Falls area.
After the introduction of internment without trial for suspected IRA men in August 1971, the SDLP members withdrew from the Parliament of Northern Ireland, and a widespread campaign of civil disobedience began. Tensions escalated after the killing of 14 unarmed civilians in Derry by the Parachute Regiment on January 30, 1972, an event dubbed Bloody Sunday.
The appearance in 1970 of the Provisional IRA, a breakaway from the increasingly Marxist Official IRA, and a campaign of violence by loyalist paramilitary groups like the Ulster Defence Association and others brought Northern Ireland to the brink of civil war. On March 30, 1972, the British government, unwilling to grant the unionist Northern Ireland government more authoritarian special powers, and convinced of its inability to restore order, pushed through emergency legislation that suspended the Northern Ireland Parliament and introduced direct rule from London .
In December 1973, after talks in Sunningdale, Berkshire, the Ulster Unionist Party, SDLP and Alliance Party of Northern Ireland reached the Sunningdale Agreement on a cross-community government for Northern Ireland, which took office on January 1, 1974. The IRA was unimpressed and increased their violence, while unionists were outraged at the participation of nationalists in the government of Northern Ireland and at the cross-border Council of Ireland.
A coalition of anti-agreement unionist politicians and paramilitaries encouraged a general strike on May 15. The strikers brought Northern Ireland to a standstill by shutting down power stations, and after Prime Minister Harold Wilson refused to send in troops to take over from the strikers, the power-sharing executive collapsed on May 28.
The level of violence declined from 1972 onwards, stabilizing at 50 to 100 deaths a year. The IRA, using weapons and explosives obtained from the United States and Libya , bombed England and various British army bases in Europe, as well as conducting ongoing attacks within Northern Ireland. These attacks were not only on military targets but also on Protestant-frequented businesses, unaffiliated civilian commercial properties, and various city centers. Cars packed with high explosives were driven directly to key areas for maximum effect.
Loyalist paramilitaries focused their campaign within Northern Ireland, claiming a few Republican paramilitary casualties. They also targeted Catholics working in Protestant areas, and (in a parallel to the IRA tactic of car-bombing) attacked Catholic-frequented pubs using automatic fire weapons. Such attacks were euphemistically known as “spray jobs.” Both groups would also carry out extensive “punishment” attacks against members of their own communities. Former Coat of Arms of Northern Ireland 1925-72
Various political talks took place, and 1975 brought a brief IRA ceasefire. The two significant events of this period, were prison hunger strikes in 1981 and the Anglo-Irish Agreement, which gave the Irish Government an advisory role in Northern Ireland’s government while confirming that Northern Ireland would remain part of the UK unless a majority of its citizens agreed to join the Republic. The republican movement gained modest electoral success with the election of Bobby Sands to the House of Commons.
By the 1990s, the failure of the IRA campaign to win mass public support or achieve its aim of British withdrawal, and in particular the public relations disaster of Enniskillen bombing (when there were 11 fatalities among families attending a Remembrance Day ceremony) in 1987, along with the 1983 replacement of the traditional republican leadership of Ruairí Ó Brádaigh by Gerry Adams, saw a move away from armed conflict to political engagement.
Ninety three percent of killings happened in Northern Ireland, and Republican paramilitaries contributed to nearly 60 percent (2056) of these. Loyalists killed nearly 28 percent (1020) while the security forces have killed just over 11 percent (362) with 9 percent percent of those attributed to the British Army. Corrymeela
During the troubles, a Christian movement known as Corrymeela became an important peace organization in Northern Ireland. The Corrymeela Community, located in Ballycastle, on the north coast, provides a place where young people and others from a divided society can meet and get to know each other, as a first step to healing divisions and as a stepping stone towards reconciliation. The community was founded in 1965 by a Presbyterian pastor and former World War II prisoner of war, the Reverend Ray Davey, who was captured in North Africa by German troops and taken to Dresden where he witnessed the Allied bombing of Germany. Belfast agreement
Increased government focus on the problems of Northern Ireland led, in 1993, to the two prime ministers signing the Downing Street Declaration. At the same time Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin, and John Hume , leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party, engaged in talks. A new leader of the Ulster Unionist Party, David Trimble , initially perceived as a hardliner, brought his party into all-party negotiations that in 1998 produced the Belfast Agreement (“Good Friday Agreement”), signed by eight parties on April 10, 1998, although not involving Ian Paisley ‘s Democratic Unionist Party or the UK Unionist Party. A majority of both communities in Northern Ireland approved this Agreement, as did the people of the Republic of Ireland , both by referendum on May 22, 1998. The Republic amended its constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann, to replace a claim it made to the territory of Northern Ireland with an affirmation of the right of all the people of Ireland to be part of the Irish nation and a declaration of an aspiration towards a United Ireland. Power-sharing assembly Northern Ireland Parliament Buildings
Under the Belfast Agreement , voters elected a new Northern Ireland Assembly. Ulster Unionist party leader David Trimble became First Minister of Northern Ireland. The Deputy Leader of the SDLP, Seamus Mallon, became Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland, though his party’s new leader, Mark Durkan, subsequently replaced him. The Ulster Unionists, Social Democratic and Labour Party, Sinn Féin and the Democratic Unionist Party each had ministers by right in the power-sharing assembly.
The assembly and its executive operated on a stop-start basis, with repeated disagreements about whether the IRA was fulfilling its commitments to disarm, and also allegations from the Police Service of Northern Ireland’s Special Branch that there was an IRA spy-ring operating in the heart of the civil service.
The events of September 11th 2001 caused many American sympathizers of the IRA cause to re-evaluate their beliefs, compounded when Gerry Adams chose to visit or support the anti-American regimes in Cuba and Colombia. The changing British position was represented by the visit of Queen Elizabeth II to Parliament Buildings in Stormont, where she met nationalist ministers from the SDLP as well as unionist ministers and spoke of the right of people who perceive themselves as Irish to be treated as equal citizens along with those who regard themselves as British. Similarly, on visits to Northern Ireland, the President of Ireland, Mary McAleese , met with unionist ministers and with the Lord Lieutenant of each county – the official representatives of the Queen.
On July 28, 2005, the IRA made a public statement ordering an end to the armed campaign and instructing its members to dump arms and to pursue purely political programs. On October 13, 2006, the agreement was concluded in which Sinn Féin would fully endorse the police in Northern Ireland, and the DUP will share power with Sinn Féin.
On May 8, 2007, home rule returned to Northern Ireland. DUP leader Ian Paisley and Sinn Féin’s Martin McGuinness took office as First Minister and Deputy First Minister respectively. Government and politics Structure
As an administrative division of the United Kingdom , Northern Ireland was defined by the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, and has had its own form of devolved government in a similar manner to Scotland and Wales. The new legislature controlled housing, education, and policing, but had little fiscal autonomy and became increasingly reliant upon subsidies from the British government. The legislature consisted of a Senate and a House of Commons. The Giant’s Causeway.
After the partition of Ireland in 1922, Northern Ireland continued to send representatives to the British House of Commons, the number of which over the years increased to 18. Those 18 seats in 2007 comprised 10 unionist, five republican (abstentionist), and three nationalists. Northern Ireland also elects delegates to the European Parliament (the legislative branch of the European Union).
Escalating violence caused the British government of Edward Heath to suspend the Belfast parliament and govern the region directly in March 1972. Attempts to introduce either a power-sharing executive or a new assembly failed until the 1998 Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement) was signed.
The 108-member Northern Ireland Assembly established in Belfast in 1998 has an executive comprised of both Unionists (Protestants who support continued British rule of Northern Ireland) and Nationalists (Catholics who support a united Ireland). The legislature selects a first minister and a deputy first minister, both of whom need the support of a majority of unionist and nationalist legislators. Moreover, legislation can be passed in the assembly only if it has the support of a minimum proportion of both unionist and nationalist members.
Westminster retained control of taxation, policing, and criminal justice.
The Northern Ireland Assembly has 108 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) (in 2007 there were 55 unionists, 28 republicans, 16 nationalists, and nine others). The three seats in the European Parliament (comprised two unionist, one republican).
At the local level in 2007 there were 26 district councils –with proposals to reduce the number of councils to seven
As the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy there is no election for Head of State.
Northern Ireland’s legal and administrative systems were adopted from those in place in pre-partition United Kingdom, and was developed by its government from 1922 until 1972. Thereafter, laws, administration and foreign affairs relating to Northern Ireland have been handled directly from London. Northern Ireland’s legal system is based on common law, and is separate from the jurisdictions of England and Wales, or Scotland. Counties
Northern Ireland consists of six counties: Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, and Tyrone, although these counties are no longer used for local government purposes. Instead there are 26 districts which have different geographical extents. Fermanagh District Council most closely follows the borders of the county from which it takes its name. Coleraine Borough Council, on the other hand, derives its name from the town of Coleraine in County Londonderry. Economy Livestock is one of the major industries in Northern Ireland. In this picture sheep graze on a pasture at the edge of Giants Causeway.
The Northern Ireland economy is the smallest of the four economies making up the United Kingdom . Northern Ireland has traditionally had an industrial economy, most notably in shipbuilding, rope manufacture and textiles , but most heavy industry has since been replaced by services, primarily the public sector. Tourism also plays a big role in the local economy. More recently the economy has benefited from major investment by many large multi-national corporations into high tech industry. These large organizations are attracted by government subsidies and the highly skilled workforce in Northern Ireland.
Fiscally a part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland’s official currency is the British pound sterling. Government revenue shares the United Kingdom’s customs and excise, income, value-added, and capital gains taxes, as well as property taxes. At the end of the twentieth century, subsidies from the British Treasury accounted for about two-fifths of Northern Ireland’s GDP.
During The Troubles, Northern Ireland received little foreign investment. Many believe this to be the result of Northern Ireland’s portrayal as a warzone in the media, by both British and International during this period. Since the signing of Good Friday Agreement investment in Northern Ireland has increased significantly. Most investment has been focused in Belfast and several areas of the Greater Belfast area.
Throughout the 1990s, the Northern Irish economy grew faster than did the economy of the rest of the UK, due in part to the rapid growth of the economy of the Republic of Ireland and the so-called “peace dividend.” Growth slowed to the pace of the rest of the UK during the down-turn of the early years of the new millennium, but growth has since rebounded.
Agriculture in Northern Ireland is heavily mechanized, thanks to high labor costs and heavy capital investment, both from private investors and the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy. In 2000, agriculture accounted for 2.4 percent of economic output in Northern Ireland, compared to 1 percent in the United Kingdom as a whole. Bombardier BD-700 Global 5000 takes off
Engineering is the largest manufacturing sub-sector in the country. Machinery and equipment manufacturing, food processing , and textile and electronics manufacturing are the leading industries. Other industries such as papermaking, furniture manufacturing, aerospace and shipbuilding are also important, concentrated mostly in the eastern parts of Northern Ireland. Of these different industries, one of the most notable is that of Northern Ireland’s fine linens, which is considered as one of the most well-known throughout Europe.
Bombardier Aerospace, which builds business jets, short-range airliners and fire-fighting amphibious aircraft and also provides defense-related services, is the province’s largest industrial employer, with 5,400 workers at five sites in the Greater Belfast area. Other major engineering employers in Northern Ireland include Caterpillar, DuPont, Emerson Electric, Nortel, Northbrook Technology, Seagate and NACCO. Many of these manufacturers receive British government financial backing, and enjoy close academic and business links with Queen’s University Belfast, which ranks as one of the best British universities for all engineering courses. Nortel BCM 200 coupled with an IP phone
As with all developed economies, services account for the majority of employment and output. Services account for almost 70 percent of economic output, and 78 percent of employees.
In 2004, tourism revenue rose seven percent to £325m, or over one percent of the local economy, on the back of a rise of four percent in total visits to 2.1-million in the year. The most popular tourist attractions include Belfast, Armagh, the Giant’s Causeway, and its many castles.
The public sector accounts for 63 percent of the economy, which is substantially higher than 43 percent of the United Kingdom as a whole. In total, the British government subsidies provide £5000-million, or 20 percent of Northern Ireland’s economic output.
Most of Northern Ireland’s trade is with other parts of the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, which is its leading export market, as well as Germany , France , and the United States . Principal exports are textiles, transport equipment, and electrical and optical equipment.
Northern Ireland has the smallest economy of any of the 12 regions of the United Kingdom, at €37.3-billion, or about two-thirds of the size of the next smallest, North East England. However, this is partly because Northern Ireland has the smallest population; at $19,603 Northern Ireland has a greater GDP per capita than both North East England and Wales. As a part of the UK, Northern Ireland lacks an international GDP per capita rating, but would fall between Kuwait (38th) and Hungary (39th).
Unemployment in Northern Ireland has decreased substantially in recent years, and was in 2006 4.5 percent, which is amongst the lowest of the regions of the United Kingdom, down from a peak of 17.2 percent in 1986. Transportation
There is a well-developed transport infrastructure, with a total of 15,420 miles (24,820km) of roads, considerably more than in the United Kingdom as a whole (1 km per 162 people). There are seven motorways, extending radially from Belfast, and connecting that city to Antrim, Dungannon, Lisburn, Newtownabbey, and Portadown. The Northern Irish rail network is notable as being both the only part of the United Kingdom’s railroads operated by a state-owned company, Northern Ireland Railways, and the only substantial part that carries no freight traffic.
The country has three civilian airports: Belfast City, Belfast International, and City of Derry. Major seaports include the Port of Belfast and the Port of Larne. The Port of Belfast is one of the chief ports of the British Isles, handling 17 million metric tons (16.7 million long tons) of goods in 2005, equivalent to two-thirds of Northern Ireland’s seaborne trade. Demographics Ethnicity
Much of the population of Northern Ireland, numbering 1,710,300 in 2004, identifies by ethnicity, religion, and political bent with one of two different ideologies—unionism or nationalism. Northern Ireland has had constant population movement with parts of western Scotland. After the Tudor invasions and after the forced settlements, or plantations, of the early seventeenth century, two distinct and antagonistic groups—of indigenous Roman Catholic Irish and the immigrant Protestant English and Scots—have molded Northern Ireland’s development. The settlers dominated County Antrim, northern Down, the Lagan corridor toward Armagh, and other powerful minorities.
According to the 2001 United Kingdom census, the ethnic composition of Northern Ireland was: White 99.15 percent, Han Chinese 0.25 percent, mixed 0.20 percent, Irish Traveler 0.10 percent, Indian 0.09 percent, other ethnic group 0.08 percent, Pakistani 0.04 percent, black African 0.03 percent, other black 0.02 percent, black Caribbean 0.02 percent, Bangladeshi 0.01 percent, and other Asian 0.01 percent. Citizenship and identity
People from Northern Ireland are British citizens by birth in the UK to at least one parent who is a UK permanent resident or citizen, or by naturalization. People who were born in Northern Ireland on or before December 31, 2004, who have at least one parent who was (or was entitled to be) an Irish citizen, are entitled to claim Republic of Ireland citizenship.
In general, Protestants in Northern Ireland see themselves primarily as being British citizens, while Catholics regard themselves primarily as being Irish citizens. Many of the population regard themselves as “Ulster” or “Northern Irish,” either primarily, or as a secondary identity. In addition, many regard themselves as both British and Irish.
Not everyone in Northern Ireland regards themselves as being Irish, particularly not Protestants. A 1999 survey showed that 51 percent of Protestants felt “Not at all Irish” and 41 percent only “weakly Irish.” Religion
Most of the population of Northern Ireland are at least nominally Christian. In the 2001 census, 53.1 percent of the Northern Irish population were Protestant (Presbyterian, Church of Ireland, Methodist and other Protestant denominations), 43.8 percent of the population were Roman Catholic, 0.4 percent Other and 2.7 none.
The demographic balance between Protestants and Roman Catholics has become delicate, since the slightly higher birth rate of Catholics has led to speculation that they will outnumber Protestants. During the political violence of the last 30 years of the twentieth century, many Protestants moved away from western and border areas, giving Londonderry, Fermanagh, and Tyrone marked Catholic majorities. The traditional concentration of Protestants in the east increased, except in Belfast, where Catholics have become the majority.
Presbyterians were the most substantial Protestant denomination in 2001, with 20.7 percent of the population, while the Anglican Church of Ireland had 15.3 percent. The remainder of the Protestant population is fragmented among dozens of smaller religious groupings.
The proportion of the population practicing their religious beliefs has fallen dramatically in the last decades of the twentieth century. Language Free Derry mural (July 31, 2007).
English is spoken as a first language by almost 100 percent of the Northern Irish population, though under the Belfast Agreement, Irish and Ulster Scots (one of the dialects of the Scots language), have recognition as “part of the cultural wealth of Northern Ireland.”
Irish is spoken by a growing proportion of the population and is an important element of the cultural identity for many northern nationalists. Unionists tend to associated the use of Irish with the largely Catholic Republic of Ireland , and with the republican movement. Catholic areas of Belfast have road signs in Irish, as they are in the Republic.
Choice of language and nomenclature in Northern Ireland often reveals the cultural, ethnic and religious identity of the speaker. The most famous example is whether Northern Ireland’s second city should be called “Derry” or “Londonderry.” The first Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland, Seamus Mallon, was criticized by unionist politicians for calling the region the “North of Ireland” while Sinn Féin has been criticized in some newspapers in the Republic for still referring to the “Six Counties.”
Northern Irish people speak English with distinctive regional accents. The northeastern dialect, of Antrim and Londonderry and parts of Down, derives from the central Scottish dialect. The remaining area, including the Lagan valley, has English accents from England, Cheshire, Merseyside, Greater Manchester, and southern Lancashire.
There are an increasing number of ethnic minorities in Northern Ireland. Chinese and Urdu are spoken by Northern Ireland’s Asian communities; though the Chinese community is often referred to as the “third largest” community in Northern Ireland, it is tiny by international standards. Since the accession of new member states to the European Union in 2004, Central and Eastern European languages, particularly Polish, are becoming increasingly common. Men and women
In 1937, the constitution required that a working woman who married had to resign from her job. The Employment Equality Act in 1977 made that practice illegal, resulting in a dramatic increase in women in the work force. More women entering the workforce between 1952 and 1995 as the number of jobs expanded. However, women tend to work in low-paid, part-time jobs in the service sector. Marriage and the family
Families have tended to live in nuclear units in government housing projects in separate Catholic and Protestant areas—like the Falls Road (Catholic) and the Shankill (Protestant) areas in Belfast. Catholics tend to have larger families, making their homes more crowded. Nuclear families are the main kin group, with relatives involved as kin in the extended family. Children adopt the father’s surname, and the first name is often a Christian name.
In contrast with both the Republic of Ireland and most parts of the UK mainland, where intermarriage between Protestants and Catholics is common, intermarriage in Northern Ireland is rare. From 1970 through to the 1990s, only five per cent of marriages were recorded as crossing community divides. This figure remained largely constant throughout the Troubles, though it has risen to between 8 and 12 per cent, according to the Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Younger people are also more likely to be married to someone of a different religion to themselves than older people. Education The Lanyon Building of Queen’s University, Belfast.
Education in Northern Ireland differs slightly from systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom . The Northern Ireland system emphasizes a greater depth of education compared to the English and Welsh systems. Northern Ireland’s results at GCSE and A-Level are consistently top in the UK. At A-Level, one third of students in Northern Ireland achieved A grades in 2007, compared to one quarter in England and Wales.
All schools in the state follow the Northern Ireland Curriculum which is based on the National Curriculum used in England and Wales. At age 11, on entering secondary education, all pupils study a broad base of subjects which include Geography, English, Mathematics, Science, Physical Education, Music and modern languages.
Primary education extends from age four to 11, when pupils sit the Eleven-plus test, the results of which determine which school they will go to. At age 14, pupils select which subjects to continue to study for General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations. In 2007 it was compulsory to study English, mathematics, science, a modern language and religious studies.
At age 16, some pupils stay at school and chose to study Advanced Level AS and A2 level subjects or more vocational qualifications such as Advanced Vocational Certificate of Education (AVCE). Those choosing AS and A2 levels normally pick three or four subjects and success in these can determine acceptance into higher education courses at university.
Queen’s University in Belfast, founded in 1845, is the most prestigious university, with about 8,000 students, mostly studying the sciences. Other tertiary institutes include the Union Theological College, founded in 1853, the New University of Ulster, which opened in 1968, the Open University in Ireland, Saint Mary’s University College, Stranmillis University College, the Belfast College of Technology, Ulster Polytechnic in Newtownabbey, and the Agricultural College. Assembly College, founded in 1853, is a Presbyterian training school.
Although religious integrated education is increasing, Northern Ireland has a highly segregated education system, with 95 percent of pupils attending either a maintained ( Catholic ) school, or a controlled school (mostly Protestant ). However, controlled schools are open to children of all faiths and none. Teaching a balanced view of some subjects (especially regional history) is difficult in these conditions. The Northern Ireland Council for Integrated Education (NICIE), a voluntary organization, promotes, develops and supports Integrated Education in Northern Ireland. Class
Catholics were excluded from skilled and semi-skilled jobs in shipyards and linen mills, were restricted to menial jobs, earning lower wages, and tended to be poorer than Protestants. Protestants worked in skilled jobs and management positions, dominated the professional and business classes, and tend to own most businesses and large farms.
Protestant and Catholic families lived in separate enclaves and worship separately, and their children study in segregated schools. Irish Catholics tend to drink liquor, whereas Protestants are viewed as more puritanical. On Sundays, Catholics often engage in leisure or recreation activities after mass. They tend to be poorer, have larger families, speak Gaelic, although not fluently. Culture
With its improved international reputation, Northern Ireland has witnessed rising numbers of tourists who come to appreciate the area’s unique heritage. Attractions include cultural festivals, musical and artistic traditions, countryside and geographical sites of interest, pubs, welcoming hospitality and sports (especially golf and fishing ). Architecture Dunluce Castle. Belfast City Hall, completed in 1906. The grounds of the building are a popular meeting point in the summer months.
Belfast was the main center of the industrial revolution in Ireland. This growth led to the city having many wonderful Victorian commercial premises and fine twentieth century buildings but few eighteenth century buildings.
Architecture, particularly in Belfast during “The Troubles,” reflected decisions to preserve public security. Automobiles were not allowed in control zones to reduce the risk of car bombings. Substandard housing for the Catholic community, especially the lack of hot water, and discrimination by Protestant-dominated local councils led to protests during the 1960s. The last decades of the twentieth century were marked by substantial investment in housing, and increased rates of home ownership, resulting from the sale of public housing units to their tenants. Art Bernadette.
Northern Ireland is known for the political art of the Bogside Artists, a trio of mural painters, living and working in Derry, Northern Ireland . They are Tom Kelly, his brother William Kelly, and their mutual friend Kevin Hasson, who began working together in 1993. Their People’s Gallery, completed in 2004, consists of 11 large murals, spanning the length of Free Derry’s Rossville Street, which runs through the heart of the Bogside. Graffiti and wall murals appear throughout urban areas, depicting the sentiments of Unionists and Nationalists. Children learn from graffiti the strong views and potential for violence. Northern Ireland artists include painter Basil Blackshaw, painter and sculptor John Kindness, Irish Impressionist painter Sir John Lavery, sculptor Eilís O’Connell, and painter Neil Shawcross. Cuisine
The best known traditional dish in Northern Ireland is the Ulster fry. It is similar to an Irish or Full English breakfast, but has the unique addition of soda bread farls and potato bread. Porridge or oatmeal often is eaten at breakfast; one stops for a cup of tea or coffee with cookies at midmorning. Most people eat the main meal at midday, which is meat-based, featuring beef, chicken, pork, or lamb. Fish and chips provide a quick meal, and a rich soup with plenty of bread can be bought in taverns at lunchtime. Irish stew combines mutton, potatoes, and onions, the chief elements of the cuisine.
Brown bread and white soda bread are served most often with meals. In the evening, families eat a simple meal of leftovers or eggs and toast. A drink generally means beer, either lager or stout. Guinness, brewed in Dublin, is the black beer most often drunk. Whiskey also is served in pubs, and coffee is also available. Literature
Despite its small geographical size, Northern Ireland prolifically produces internationally renowned writers and poets from a wide variety of disciplines. Irish language literature was the predominant literature in the pre-Plantation period.
The Ulster Cycle is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. This is one of the four major cycles of Irish Mythology. The cycle centers around the reign of Conchobar mac Nessa, who is said to have been king of Ulster around the time of Christ.
Ulster-Scots literature first followed models from Scotland, with the rhyming weavers, such as James Orr, developing an indigenous tradition of vernacular literature. Writers in Northern Ireland participated in the Gaelic Revival.
Belfast-born author and scholar C. S. Lewis is known for his work on medieval literature, Christian apologetics, literary criticism, and fiction, especially his series The Chronicles of Narnia.
Nobel Prize-winning poet Seamus Heaney has published many collections of poems. His career parallels the violent political struggles of his homeland, but he is fascinated primarily by the earth and the history embedded there. His verse incorporates Gaelic expressions as he explores the themes of nature, love, and mythology. His poems use images of death and dying, and he has written elegiac poems to friends and family members lost to “The Troubles.” Music Van Morrison.
Irish traditional music was largely meant for dancing at celebrations for weddings, saint’s days or other observances. Instruments include the fiddle, the flute and whistle, Uilleann pipes (a complex forms of bagpipes ), the harp, the accordion and concertina, Banjo, Guitar, Bouzouki, mandolin, bodhrán (tambourine drum), and harmonica .
Irish traditional music is focused around the “pub-session,” a regular meeting, often weekly, and is marked by informal arrangement of both musicians and audience. Protestant Scottish traditional music is characterized by the marching bands. These bands meet regularly in community halls to tune their skills. The strong Scottish roots of the Ulster Scots musical scene is evidenced by the continuing popularity during the Marching Season.
Among traditional songs from Northern Ireland are The Sash, and A Londonderry Air also known as Danny Boy. Sport A child participates in a game of gaelic football. Greyhound racing
Sport is popular and widespread. Throughout the country a wide variety of sports are played, the most popular being Gaelic football, hurling and camogie, rugby union, soccer and hockey . By attendance figures Gaelic football is the most popular sport in Ireland.
In Ireland many sports, such as rugby union, Gaelic football and hurling, are organized in an all-island basis, with a single team representing Ireland in international competitions. Other sports, such as soccer, have separate organizing bodies in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. At the Olympics , a person from Northern Ireland can choose to represent either the Ireland or Great Britain team.
Other sports include soccer, Gaelic handball, equestrian sports, greyhound racing, road bowling, athletics, baseball, cricket, basketball, among other sports. Symbols Flag of Ireland. Former Governmental Flag of Northern Ireland 1953-72.
The Union Flag and former governmental Flag of Northern Ireland appear in some loyalist areas, with the Irish national flag of the Republic of Ireland , the tricolor, appearing in some republican areas. Even kerbstones in some areas are painted red-white-blue or green-white-orange, depending on whether local people express unionist/loyalist or nationalist/republican sympathies.
The only official flag is the Union Flag. The former Northern Ireland Flag (also known as the ‘Ulster Banner’ or ‘Red Hand Flag’) was based on the arms of the former Parliament of Northern Ireland, and was used by the Government of Northern Ireland and its agencies between 1953 and 1972. The Ulster Banner has not been used by the government since the abolition of the Parliament of Northern Ireland under the Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973. It remains, however used uniquely to represent Northern Ireland in certain sporting events. The arms from which the Ulster Banner derives were themselves based on the flag of Ulster.
Many people, however, prefer to avoid flags altogether because of their divisive nature. Paramilitary groups on both sides have also developed their own flags. Some unionists also occasionally use the flags of secular and religious organisations to which they belong.
Some groups, including the Irish Rugby Football Union and the Church of Ireland have used the Flag of Saint Patrick as a symbol of Ireland which lacks nationalist or unionist connotations. However, it is felt by some to be a loyalist flag, as it was used to represent Ireland when the whole island was part of the UK and is used by some British army regiments. Foreign flags are also found, such as the Palestinian flags in some Nationalist areas and Israeli flags in some Unionist areas, which represent general comparisons made by both sides with conflicts in the wider world.
The national anthem played at state events in Northern Ireland is “God Save the Queen.” At some cross-community events, however, the “Londonderry Air,” also known as the tune of “Danny Boy,” may be played as a neutral, though unofficial, substitute. At some sporting events, such as GAA matches the Irish national anthem Amhran na bhFiann is played.
At the Commonwealth Games, the Northern Ireland team uses the Ulster Banner as its flag and Danny Boy is used as its National Anthem. The Northern Ireland football team also uses the Ulster Banner as its flag. Notes ↑ Population and Migration Estimates Northern Ireland (2009) – Statistical Report (PDF). Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (24 June 2010). Retrieved November 17, 2011. References Bardon, Jonathan. 1992. A history of Ulster. Dundonald, Belfast, Northern Ireland: Blackstaff Press. ISBN 9780856404986 Geraghty, Tony. 2000. The Irish War: the hidden conflict between the IRA and British Intelligence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801864568 Kee, Robert. 2000. The green flag: a history of Irish nationalism. London: Penguin. ISBN 9780140291650 Dominic Murray, Alan Smith, Ursula Birthistle. 1997. Education in Ireland. Irish Peace Institute Research Centre. ISBN 1874653429 Barritt, Denis P. and Charles Frederick Carter. 1972. The Northern Ireland problem: a study in group relations. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192850584 Boyle, Kevin and Tom Hadden. 1994. Northern Ireland: the choice. London: New York. ISBN 9780140235418 Buckland, Patrick. 1981. A history of Northern Ireland. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers. ISBN 9780841907003 Mullan, Don, and John Scally. 1997. Bloody Sunday: massacre in Northern Ireland, the eyewitness accounts. Niwot, Colo: Roberts Rinehart. ISBN 9781570981593 Taylor, Peter. 1999. Loyalists: war and peace in Northern Ireland. New York: TV Books. ISBN 9781575000473 External links

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Top 8 Cities of India and Their Famous Dish

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Indian food is generally famous for its spiciness, which makes it tasty and unique. Every single spice used in Indian food carries some or other nutritional properties, which makes it very healthy. Almost every state in India is famous for its own cuisine. From the famous Chole Bhature of the north to the famous Idli Sambhar of the south, from Tunde Ke Kebab of Lucknow and Prawn Gassi of Goa, here is the list of 8 cities where you will find the best Tags:

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The Simply Recipes Guide to Pepper

Print Photography Credit: Alison Bickle
Nothing beats freshly ground pepper! Learn a few tricks and tips, and you’ll never take pepper for granted again.
Pepper is yang to salt’s yin . When we think of one, we think of the other. Seasoning with pepper may be a conscious choice we make, but the act is so ingrained in our behavior we don’t always stop to consider its function.
Salt is an essential nutrient; our bodies need it to survive. Pepper, by contrast, is a preference, there to add flavor and texture to our foods. WHERE IS PEPPER GROWN?
Pepper is a fruit. It’s the berry of the perennial vine Piper nigrum , native to equatorial India. It needs hot, humid weather and lots of sun to thrive. The berries grow in long, dangling clusters.
Black, white, and green peppercorns are the same berry. They are simply harvested and processed in different ways, and at different times, which accounts for the color variation. Each kind of pepper has its own flavor profile and role to play in our cooking.
Black pepper has been used in Indian cooking since 2000 BC. The spice trade between India and the Roman Empire, where pepper was a luxury ingredient, became a lucrative business. The culinary and monetary allure of pepper was a huge reason European powers sought new trades routes, helping spawn the Age of Exploration.
Today, black pepper still dominates the global spice market. Vietnam, Indonesia, India, and Brazil are the top-producing countries. According to the International Trade Centre , it accounted for one-fifth of the world’s imported spices in 2016.
Not all pepper is the same! We call a few spices “peppercorns” (pink peppercorns among them) but they aren’t even botanically related to pepper; more on those later. WHAT DOES PEPPER TASTE LIKE?
If you have pepper around, go get it. Grind it or shake some out of a shaker. Smell it. Is it bright or musty? Earthy or sharp? Sprinkle some on your tongue.
If you are feeling brave, bite into a whole peppercorn. There’s a prickly sensation initially, then a spreading warmth that’s invigorating.
Different grinds also give you different sensations. There’s a powerful and enlivening hit of heat when you have big chunks of ground pepper versus a dusting of finely ground pepper.
Now that you’re in a peppery frame of mind, let’s take a look at different varieties of pepper and what they have to offer you. HOW TO SELECT GOOD PEPPER
If you cook a lot, buy peppercorns in bulk. You’ll save money and likely get a fresher product. (Who knows how long those little jars have been on the shelf?)
When choosing peppercorns, look for uniform color and darkness (signs of quality). I love The Spice House , Zingerman’s, Penzeys, and Kalustyan’s , which offer peppercorns from many regions with distinct qualities. Closer to you, natural foods stores or many grocery stores with good bulk food sections may carry bulk spices. BLACK PEPPER
Black pepper is probably what’s in your grinder or shaker right now.
The berries for what becomes black pepper are harvested as they turn from green to yellow. Then they’re dried in the sun for three to seven days. After this curing, they become the tiny, wrinkly black pellets we know so well.
Black pepper is an ace solo player, but also a fine ensemble actor. It’s a vital part in many global spice blends, including berbere, garam masala, ras al hanout, and dukkah. And don’t forget lemon pepper! WHITE PEPPER
Alas, white pepper—the neglected peppercorn! It’s way different from black pepper, and not just in color.
White pepper comes from the same plant as black pepper, but the berries are harvested ripe, and then soaked so their outer skins strip away, leaving an inner seed that’s creamy white.
White pepper is not as fruity as black pepper, but it is spicy-hotter than black pepper. It also has a musty, fermented character that offsets rich foods and spices that have a lot of resinous, citrusy notes (like juniper).
In classical French cooking, white pepper is preferred for seasoning white cream sauces and stews because it doesn’t interrupt the monochrome look—it’s not necessarily a flavor preference. (To be honest, I like the speckled look of black pepper in cream sauces.)
I love white pepper in dry rubs as a foil for fatty meats like lamb. The French seasoning quatre-épices , used in pâtés and sausages, employs white pepper along with nutmeg, cloves, and ginger to this effect. Chinese cuisine is notable for its use of white pepper. The “hot” in hot and sour soup comes from white pepper.
Grind white pepper and black pepper side by side and notice their distinct aromas. One at a time, put some on your tongue and consider their flavors. There’s no rule about when it’s appropriate to use white or black pepper. It’s up to you! GREEN PEPPER
In its purest form, green pepper is simply fresh, unripe pepper berries. Because it’s pretty impossible to transport fresh pepper halfway around the world, what we see on the market comes in two forms: freeze-dried or bottled in brine.
The flavor is sweeter and fruitier, but still peppery. Try it with fish, chicken, or even chèvre cheese. PINK PEPPER
Pink peppercorns come from an entirely different plant. Schinus molle (a.k.a. pepper tree, pepper plant, or pepperberry) is native to the Andes and is an evergreen in the cashew family. (Knowing such, if you have tree nut allergies avoid pink peppercorns.) Fun fact: florists use fresh branches of pepper plant in arrangements.
Pink peppercorns are the same size as black peppercorns, and they have some of the same punch, but not quite as much. In their dried form, the berries are more delicate than black pepper, and when ground, they are like fine, cheerfully red-pink confetti.
Try them in cream sauces, with lighter seafoods, over eggs, and with poached poultry. SZECHUAN PEPPER
Also not from Piper nigrum, it’s the dried fruit of a species of prickly ash tree in the Zanthoxylum genus. Its flavor is mostly in the outer husks, and the small, hard seeds are not usually included in the spice.
Szechuan pepper delivers a tongue-numbing sensation that is said to enable diners to better taste the flavors of spicy chilis. It’s a vital component of Chinese five-spice. It’s often dry-toasted and ground right before using. PEPPERCORN BLENDS
Spice companies often offer combinations of black, white, green, and pink peppercorns because they look striking in clear acrylic pepper mills.
Spice purists may poo-poo these blends, as it dilutes the individual qualities of each variety of peppercorn. I don’t really have a position here. If you use it and like it, keep doing so. HOW TO SEASON FOODS WITH PEPPER
Unless I’m testing a recipe, I hardly ever measure pepper or grind it in advance. I just grind some with my pepper mill over the pot (or pan, or salad, or what have you) until it seems like enough. Then I taste it and add more if needed.
If you need to measure an exact amount of ground pepper for your recipe, grind it into a small dish or onto your cutting board and then scoop up what you need with measuring spoons. Another trick is to grind it on a sheet of paper—pick up the sheet, bend it to make a spout, and funnel it into your measuring spoon.
Savvy recipes call for seasoning with pepper at the end of a recipe. This is because you’ll mute some of the volatile oils in the pepper if you add it too early to a long-cooked dish like soup or stew. You can always hit it with some pepper early in the process, then finish with more fresh pepper for a one-two punch. But you do get the most mileage out of freshly ground pepper when you add it at the very end of cooking.
I’ve not yet resorted to keeping a small grinder in my purse to deploy when dining out or visiting relatives, but I’m considering it. (Wink.) HOW TO STORE PEPPER
For optimal flavor, store whole peppercorns in a dark, dry place for up to a year. After that point, they won’t go bad, but they will start to lose their flavor. If we still haven’t convinced you that grinding fresh is best read our post on Why You Should Use Freshly Ground Pepper . PUMPED ABOUT PEPPER? TRY THESE RECIPES! Steak au Poivre , the classic peppered French steak, is finished with a creamy pan sauce. Peppercorns are essential in Basic Pickling Spice Blend , for all your pickling needs! It’s simply not Filipino Chicken Adobo without peppercorns. The dry rub in these Memphis-style Pork Ribs includes a backbone of black pepper. Ethiopian Berbere-spiced Chicken Drumsticks showcase a fiery yet earthy side of pepper. This recipe for Kung Pao Chicken is a great way to try out Szechuan pepper for the first time! Follow me on Pinterest Sara Bir
Sara Bir a graduate of The Culinary Institute of America and the author of two cookbooks: The Fruit Forager’s Companion and Tasting Ohio . Past gigs include leading chocolate factory tours, slinging street cart sausages, and writing pop music criticism. Sara skates with her local roller derby team as Carrion the Librarian.

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Chef Marco Pierre White to host gourmet fest in Bengaluru

Chef Marco Pierre White to host gourmet fest in Bengaluru 13 Bengaluru, May 31 (IANS) Celebrated British chef Marco Pierre White is back in India to host a two-day gourmet festival ‘World on a Plate’ (WOAP) at a star hotel in this tech hub from Saturday, according to the event organisers. “Marco is holding the second edition of the fest in south India for the first time, five months after his debut in Mumbai in January, to explore the exotic dishes of Indian and overseas culinary experts,” a spokesperson of the event organiser The Inner Circle told IANS here. At the gourmand weekend, the acclaimed chef will curate a fine dinner, brunch and 2 masterclasses at the hospitality partner hotel Ritz Carlton, paired with the best wine and cocktails the country offers. Noted chef Manu Chandra will interact with White at Nolte’s social kitchen during the weekend fest. ALSO READ: US-based Alorica opens back office in Bengaluru “The fest will explore a thematic representation of ‘Garden of Eden’ congruent with a landscape, an ‘organic produce’ marketplace, a beer corner, a ‘dessert market’ and a ‘garden Sunday sundowner’,” said the spokesperson. Bangalore’s 16 best restaurants and 6 patisseries will compete for the ‘WOAP Restaurant of the Year’ trophy. New age Indian and international chefs will host master-classes, workshops and contests, parallel to White’s live-judging of culinary talent from India at the festival’s Taste Theatre. “Marco will also headline WOAP’s initiative to fight hunger in India as they donate over 1,00,000 meals for underprivileged kids in association with HUG Foundation,” the spokesperson said. About 10 celebrity chefs will also showcase 22 food pop-ups by restaurants serving regional and global cuisines, desserts, cocktails and live music. ALSO READ: White House unveils 1st part of Middle East peace plan Joining the culinary fest will be famous chefs like the star hotels’ chef Bruno Cerdan, Palate Culinary Academy owner Rakhee Vaswani, Everstone Capital Culinary Director Vicky Ratnani, patissier and chocolatier Neeth Medappa, Lavonne Bangalore’s Vinesh Johny, Lavasalt Melbourne owner Sabastian Simon, Capeberry’s Abhijith Saha and Vikas Seth of Sanchez. “The chefs will also educate on exploratory cuisines, teach gourmet food pairings and impart lesser known tips and tricks learnt in kitchens the world over,” added the spokesperson. Recalling his visit to Mumbai five months ago, White said he had lots to learn from Indian food. “India gave me more than I could. It’s time to share my kitchen secrets and favourite cooking techniques while preparing some of my signature dishes using fresh local produce,” he told reporters ahead of the event. Chef White will also live-judge 16 of the city’s best restaurants to award the ‘WOAP Restaurant of the Year’ trophy to the most deserving talent. –IANS

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