Every movie and show coming to Netflix in April

Every movie and show coming to Netflix in April

Catch the so-so 2007 version of the fantasy saga before the BBC one comes out ! The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants 2 Warner Bros. Pictures Classic girlhood coming-of-age stories based on the best-selling young adult novels by Ann Brashares. The two movies are based on a four-book series, in which four best friends find a pair of jeans that magically fits all of them. Starring Blake Lively, Alexis Bledel, Amber Tamblyn, and America Ferrera. Valkyrie Available April 2 Kevin Hart: Irresponsible (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Kevin Hart brings his sold-out comedy tour, Kevin Hart: Irresponsible , to a global audience for his first original Netflix standup special. The one-hour special was filmed in front of a sold-out live audience of over 15,000 people at the O2 Arena in London, England. Hart touches upon his friends, family, travel, … and a year filled with Irresponsible behavior. Available April 3 Suzzanna: Buried Alive (Netflix Film) From Netflix: After a pregnant woman is murdered, her spirit seeks revenge against her increasingly terrified killers, who are determined to finish her off for good. Available April 5 Dean Buscher/Netflix Chilling Adventures of Sabrina: Part 2 (Netflix Original) After signing her name into the Dark Lord’s book, Sabrina gains an intense amount of power — and feels a pull towards the dark side. She also gets caught in a love triangle between Edward and Jacob … I mean sexy warlock Nick Scratch and mortal-next-door Harvey Kinkle. The underwhelming holiday special tied things up a little too neatly, but we’ll see what this OP Sabrina has in store. In The Shadows Legacies: Season 1 Our Planet (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Exhilarating visuals and stunning footage of rarely-seen animals mix with somber truths about humanity’s impact on the planet’s habitats and species. Persona: Collection (Netflix Original) From Netflix: An eclectic exploration of different personas in a collection of four short films directed by critically acclaimed Korean directors. Roman Empire: Caligula: The Mad Emperor (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Once beloved by the troops and people alike, Caligula shocks Rome by ruling with the cruel depravity and debauchery that make him infamous. Spirit Riding Free: Season 8 (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Big changes lie ahead for Lucky and her friends in an eventful final season — from new babies at home to a faraway boarding school. Tijuana (Netflix Original) From Netflix: When a prominent politician is murdered in cold blood, intrepid local journalists risk their lives to uncover the truth. Unicorn Store (Netflix Film) From Netflix: Kit (Brie Larson), a twenty-something dreamer, receives an invitation that would fulfill her childhood dreams. Available April 9 Trolls: The Beat Goes On!: Season 6 (Netflix Original) From Netflix: The trolls face a day without a holiday, Biggie accidentally starts a fun-tastic new dance craze, and Guy turns a camping trip into a “glamping” trip. Available April 10 You vs. Wild (Netflix Original) Netflix Following the success of Black Mirror: Bandersnatch , Netflix’s latest interactive adventure has the viewer follow along with outdoorsman Bear Grylls . You can decide whether he lives or dies! All this power! Available April 11 Black Summer (Netflix Original) From Netflix: In the dark, early days of a zombie apocalypse, complete strangers band together to find the strength they need to survive and get back to loved ones. Available April 12 A Land Imagined (Netflix Film) From Netflix: A cop in Singapore investigates the disappearance of a Chinese migrant construction worker who spent sleepless nights playing a mysterious video game. Band Aid Huge in France (Netflix Original) From Netflix: After moving to LA to reconnect with his son, comedian Gad Elmaleh must learn to live without the celebrity perks he’s accustomed to in France. Mighty Little Bheem (Netflix Original) From Netflix: An innocent toddler’s boundless curiosity — and extraordinary might — lead to mischief and adventure in his small Indian town. The Perfect Date (Netflix Film) From Netflix: To save up for college, Brooks Rattigan creates an app where anyone can pay him to play the perfect stand-in boyfriend for any occasion. The Silence (Netflix Film) From Netflix: When the world is under attack from terrifying creatures who hunt their human prey by sound, 16-year old Ally Andrews (Kiernan Shipka), who lost her hearing at 13, and her family seek refuge in a remote haven. But they discover a sinister cult who are eager to exploit Ally’s heightened senses. The Silence is directed by John R. Leonetti (Annabelle) and stars Stanley Tucci, Kiernan Shipka, Miranda Otto, John Corbett, Kate Trotter and Kyle Breitkopf. Special (Netflix Original) From Netflix: A young gay man with cerebral palsy branches out from his insular existence in hopes of finally going after the life he wants. Who Would You Take to a Deserted Island? (Netflix Film) From Netflix: On their last night together, four longtime flatmates’ lives are suddenly upended when a secret is revealed during the course of an evening celebration. Available April 15 Luis Miguel – The Series: Season 1 No Good Nick (Netflix Original) From Netflix: A family finds their lives turned upside down when a young, street-smart grifter appears on their doorstep, claiming she’s a distant relative. The New Romantic Available April 16 Super Monsters Furever Friends (Netflix Original) From Netflix: On the first night of spring, the Super Monsters and their families gather for food, fun and games in the park — and meet their adorable monster pets! Available April 18 My First First Love (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Due to various personal reasons, a group of Yun Tae-o’s friends move into his house, where they experience love, friendship, and everything in between. Available April 19 A Fortunate Man (Netflix Film) From Netflix: A gifted engineer flees his austere roots to pursue wealth and success among Copenhagen’s elite, but the pride propelling him threatens to be his ruin. Brené Brown: The Call to Courage (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Best-selling author Brené Brown discusses what it takes to choose courage over comfort in a culture defined by scarcity, fear and uncertainty. Cuckoo: Season 5 (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Ken thinks he’s hit the big time when he discovers a wealthy half sister he never knew he had, but her fortunes and his hopes are soon reversed. I, Daniel Blake Music Teacher (Netflix Film) From Netflix: Burned by his past, an emotionally troubled, small-town music teacher risks everything he has to reconnect with a now-famous former student. Rilakkuma and Kaoru (Netflix Anime) Netflix This absolutely, amazingly adorable stop-motion animation follows plush bear Rilakkuma and his human roommate Karoru. There is not much plot info beyond this, but do we really need it? Just look at them! Samantha!: Season 2 (Netflix Original) From Netflix: The series follows the story of a former child star from the 80s, Samantha! (Emanuelle Araújo) who desperately clings to the fringes of celebrity. Together with her husband Wound (Douglas Silva) and their children Cindy (Sabrina Nonato), and Brandon (Cauã Gonçalves), she delights with hare-brained schemes to launch herself back into the spotlight. Someone Great (Netflix Film) From Netflix: Aspiring music journalist Jenny (Gina Rodriguez) has just landed her dream job at an iconic magazine and is about to move to San Francisco. Rather than do long distance, her boyfriend of nine years (Lakeith Stanfield) decides to call it quits. To nurse her broken heart, Jenny gathers up her two best friends Erin (DeWanda Wise) and Blair (Brittany Snow) for one outrageous last adventure in New York City. From writer/director Jennifer Kaytin Robinson (creator of MTV’s Sweet/Vicious) Someone Great is a hilarious and heartfelt story of friendship, love, and what it means to let go of your twenties and enter adulthood. Available April 20 Grass is Greener (Netflix Original) From Netflix: It lit up jazz and hip-hop — and ignited a war on drugs steeped in racial injustice. Experts explore America’s complicated relationship with weed. Available April 22 Pinky Malinky: Part 2 (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Pinky Malinky is on a roll! Catch up on this joyful hot dog boy’s continuing adventures as he spreads fun and positivity with best friends Babs and JJ. Selection Day (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Manjunath Kumar, fourteen, knows he is good at cricket — if not as good as his elder brother Radha. He knows that he fears and resents his domineering and cricket-obsessed father, admires his brilliantly talented sibling and is fascinated by the world of CSI and by curious and interesting scientific facts. But there are many things about himself and about the world that he doesn’t know. When Manju begins to get to know Radha’s great rival, a boy as privileged and confident as Manju is not, everything in Manju’s world begins to change and he is faced with decisions that will change both his sense of self and of the world around him. Available April 23 I Think You Should Leave with Tim Robinson (Netflix Original) From Netflix: In this new sketch show, Tim Robinson and guests spend each segment driving someone to the point of needing — or desperately wanting — to leave. Available April 24 Bonding (Netflix Original) From Netflix: A New York City grad student moonlighting as a dominatrix enlists her gay BFF from high school to be her assistant. Available April 25 The Hateful Eight: Extended Version The Ugly Truth Available April 26 The Protector: Season 2 (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Facing formidable odds against the resurgent Immortals, Hakan and the Loyal Ones must forestall sinister plans to destroy the city — and all humans. ReMastered: Devil at the Crossroads (Netflix Original) From Netflix: Robert Johnson was one of the most influential blues guitarists ever. Even before his early death, fans wondered if he’d made a pact with the Devil. She-Ra and the Princesses of Power: Season 2 (Netflix Original) Netflix The first season of She-Ra captivated us with the nuanced character dynamics, sparkly main theme , and sleek character designs . Adora and the Princess Alliance return in season 2 and must face off Hordak, Catra and the growing power of the Horde . Street Food (Netflix Original) From Netflix: From the creators of Chef’s Table, Street Food takes viewers to some of the world’s most vibrant cities to explore the rich culture of street food all over the globe. Season one explores nine countries across Asia, from the hawker stalls of Singapore to the food carts of India. Each episode highlights the stories of perseverance and culture that bring life to each country’s cuisine. The Sapphires Yankee (Netflix Original) From Netflix: A young man from Texas crosses the border into Mexico and becomes an infamous drug lord. Available April 27

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Where to Eat: Ruby Murry’s

Where to Eat: Ruby Murry’s March 20, 2019 Photo by: Meredith Andrews
Located off Chancery Lane, a minute’s stroll from Front Street, Ruby Murry’s is a pleasant, out-of-the-way escape that’s still conveniently close to all of Hamilton’s shops and offices. It’s also one of town’s newest eateries and makes some of the best Indian food around.
The restaurant’s warm ambiance is cozy and comfortable, with a lively bistro buzz that is equally fitting for casual afternoon dates, client schmoozing and intimate evenings for two. Ruby Murry’s also offers an Indian Lunch Buffet, if you’re in need of a quick and tasty meal to take back to the office.
Inside, soft white tablecloths are set against deep burgundy walls, worn bricks and Indian-inspired artwork. Above, decorative hanging lights cast dancing patterns against the gently arched ceilings. Ruby Murry’s menu features traditional Indian cuisine with a twist, showcasing a wide variety of dishes that reflect many different regional styles and delicacies. To begin, sample the vegetable or shrimp pakora, deep-fried until golden and served piping hot. The crisp aloo tikki potato and green pea fritters are another house appetiser favourite. And if you’re dining with a groups of friends, be sure to order one of their, chewy, bubbly, family-sized naan to share or ask our chefs to prepare a family style dinner!
Aromatic dinner entrees are seasoned to perfection and range widely from creamy and mild to extra spicy. Try the Tandoori roasted chicken flatbread with spiced onion jam and cilantro yogurt or the slow cooked lamb bhuna with onion, tomato, ginger and coriander over basmati rice. In authentic, home-style Indian fashion, Ruby Murry’s places an antique spice and condiment holder at the centre of each table. Guests are invited to taste, sprinkle and garnish to their hearts’ content! The kitchen always aims to please and can accommodate anyone with special dietary needs; there are plenty of vegan, gluten-free and dairy-free options as well as a kid-friendly menu.
Although Ruby Murry’s hasn’t been around for all that long, it’s quickly won over first time guests with consistently delicious food and personable wait staff who make it a point to recognise faces and remember names. Unique Indian beers and cocktails, plus wines by the glass are another reason this spot is a hit on Friday afternoons. Inquire about Ruby Murry’s colourful and enticing sampler platters for parties and functions or plan to rent the entire restaurant for your next private event. They are also happy to cater at your chosen location.
Reservations are recommended. Dinner: 5:30-11pm, Sat Dinner: 6-10pm
Ruby Murry’s

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The Weekender: March 21 to 24 | BU Today

Home / World Localities / The Weekender: March 21 to 24 | BU Today The Weekender: March 21 to 24 | BU Today World Localities
Spring break may be over, but there are plenty of fun things going on all over Boston this weekend to help you unwind from a busy week. How about having robots make your lunch? Or enjoying a night of free IMAX movies or a free a cappella concert? Check out our suggestions in this week’s edition of “The Weekender ” and leave your own suggestions in the Comment section below.
Spyce
The robot invasion has begun—and they’ve come for your fast-casual food. (Well, actually, they’ve come to make your meal for you.) Head to Downtown Crossing this weekend and stop by Spyce for a one-of-a-kind dining experience. The eatery bills itself as the world’s first restaurant featuring a robotic kitchen that cooks complex meals—the only time you encounter a human during the dining experience is when an employee adds sauce to your bowl before handing it off to you. Founded in 2018 by four MIT engineering students, Spyce offers bowls from a variety of cuisines, including Thai, Latin, Roma, Korean, Indian, and Lebanese. Gluten-free and vegan options are available. And at just $7.50 each, they’re a great buy.
Spyce, 241 Washington St., Boston, is open daily from 10:30 am to 10 pm. Take an MBTA Green Line trolley to Government Center and walk. Try a dish made by a robot—like this Thai bowl—at Spyce in Downtown Crossing. Photo courtesy of Spyce
Haymarket
Every Friday and Saturday , a narrow alley just steps from Faneuil Hall and the North End is transformed into a dazzling, sensory farmers market. On North Street, Blackstone Street, and Hanover Street, Haymarket is one of the oldest open-air markets in the country (it’s been in operation since 1820) and the cheapest place around to buy fresh fruits, vegetables, and seafood (prices are a quarter to half of what you’d pay in a supermarket). There are more than 40 vendors, comprising over 20 nationalities. Prices and produce vary slightly from week to week, but you’re sure to find deals every time. The outdoor market is open rain or shine, but vendors may pack up early if weather gets bad or customers thin out. Be sure to skim these tips before heading out, and don’t forget to bring cash and reusable bags.
Haymarket is open every Friday and Saturday from dawn to dusk (no official hours). Cash only; prices vary. Take an MBTA Green Line trolley to Haymarket . Haymarket , one of the country’s oldest open-air markets, is open Fridays and Saturdays and sells fresh local produce and seafood at a third to a quarter of supermarket prices. Photo courtesy of Haymarket
Gender Bending Fashion at the MFA
This new exhibition, opening March 21 at the Museum of Fine Arts, upends traditional ideas about men’s and women’s clothing. Gender Bending Fashion presents more than 60 boundary-pushing designs by contemporary designers—including Rad Hourani, Jean Paul Gaultier, Alessandro Michele for Gucci, Palomo, and Rei Kawakubo—in the context of historical trends (anyone remember the peacock revolution of the 1960s?) The exhibition explores societal shifts over the last century and touches on issues of gender identity and expression, sexuality, race, class, pop culture, and more. It also features a digital album in two formats—a large-scale video and an interactive touchscreen—which highlights 10 individuals from the Boston area whose perspectives reflect and expand on many of these themes. Visitors will see pieces worn by actors, musicians, and influencers, including Marlene Dietrich, David Bowie, Jimi Hendrix, Young Thug, and Tilda Swinton in a multimedia presentation.
Gender Bending Fashion is on display at the Museum of Fine Arts, 465 Huntington Ave., Boston, from March 21 to August 25. Find directions here and hours here. Admission is free for BU students, faculty, and staff with a valid BU ID.
Free Film Fridays at the Museum of Science
Looking for a relaxing way to spend your Friday? How about kicking back in one of the comfy reclining seats in the Museum of Science Mugar Omni Theater, where you can catch one (or two) of several riveting IMAX films. This week’s showings include Cuba, which transports viewers to the vibrant architecture, lively streets, and pristine ecosystems of this Caribbean island; Great Barrier Reef, which takes you on an unforgettable underwater adventure to one of the seven wonders of the world; and Volcanoes: The Fires of Creation, which tells the story of the planet’s fiery origins through the science and culture of volcanoes around the world. Tickets are free, but must be reserved at the box office on the day of the event.
Free Film Fridays is each Friday throughout March at the Museum of Science Mugar Omni Theater, One Science Park , Boston. Check the website for show times; each film is 50 minutes long. Tickets are available on a first-come, first-served basis at the box office the day of the event. Space is limited. Patrons can choose to see up to two films per date.
In Achord Presents: Beanpot of A Cappella
You’ve probably heard of the Beanpot hockey tournament, but what about the Beanpot of A Cappella ? In Achord, BU’s oldest coed a cappella group, hosts its 28th annual crosstown concert on Saturday , March 23. This year, they’ll be joined by the Downbeats of Northeastern University, the Common Tones of Boston College, and Boston University’s Chordially Yours. Admission is free, but donations will support the Franciscan Children’s Hospital.
The Beanpot of A Cappella is Saturday , March 23, at 7:30 pm at the Photonics Center, 8 St. Mary’s St., Room 206. Free and open to the public.
Graduate student Madeleine O’Keefe (CAS’18, COM’19) can be reached at mokeefe@bu.edu; follow her on Twitter @OKeefeMadeleine.
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Street Food in Kuala Lumpur – The Ultimate Guide

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Open any guidebook to Kuala Lumpur, and you will find street food listed right at the top of things to do. The capital of Malaysia is renowned for the diversity of its cuisines and its abundance of night markets (pasar malams) and hawker food centres. As an expat family living in Kuala Lumpur, discovering street markets around the city has been a priority of ours. What makes street food in Kuala Lumpur so unique?
Traditionally, street food in Kuala Lumpur was a way for manual and low-paid workers getting cheap and energy-filled meals during their working hours. Expect greasy, fatty dishes like Nasi Lemak (literally fatty rice) and Char Kway Teow (rice noodles stir-fried in pork fat with prawns, cockles and egg) to dominate the food stalls.
Although the population of Malaysia is predominantly Muslim, in cities like Kuala Lumpur, huge Indian and Chinese communities reside side-by-side. Many of the most famous street foods aren’t halal at all and consist of favourites like roasted pig and stir-fries cooked in lashings of pork fat.
With so many cultures contributing dishes, the choice of food in the morning and night markets is eye-watering. For breakfast alone, the selection of food is astounding. Enjoy a Malay-style banana-leaf wrapped parcel of nasi lemak (coconut rice, chicken, fried anchovies, hard-boiled and sambal) or queue up for a freshly roasted duck in Chinatown.
Our family favourite is a simple plate of roti canai (around 2RM or 50p). It’s delicious, greasy pancake-like bread that you dip in tasty curry sauce. It’s a bit spicy for the kids who instead opt for roti pisang, made with sweet bananas. Where can you find the best street food in Kuala Lumpur?
By now, your mouth should be watering at the very thought of all these delicious dishes, but where can you find the very best?
As residents, I started asking some of my Malaysian friends and got a pretty shocking answer. Locals I spoke to were adamant that the quality of street food is going downhill! Decades-old food stands have become so popular than the owners no longer cook. Instead, they leave the hands-on work for the staff. Not every business does this, but it’s something tourists should bear in mind when they sample ‘authentic’ street food. Here are some more tips from locals on how to experience the best street food in Kuala Lumpur.
Jalan Alor
The ultimate street food experience in Kuala Lumpur is Jalan Alor. In direct competition with Khao San Road in Bangkok for tackiness, this long, pedestrianised street at the heart of Bukit Bintang is brimming with plastic stools, jet-lagged backpackers and cheap souvenir stands. It’s not a great place to take the kids – the crowds are a little intense. Having said that, the locals have no qualms pushing their strollers through the hungry hordes at 11 pm! While our local friends rave about the Wong Ah Wah chicken wings stall; we’re obsessed with a little Thai stand right at the far end which does amazing steamed fish and Chang beer.
Pudu
The historically Chinese area of Pudu is another excellent place to head for street food in the centre of the city. If you’re there in the morning, get down to the ICC (Integrated Commercial Complex) where the basement floor is jam-packed with stalls selling breakfast favourites. Try popiah rolls – one of my favourite KL snacks – at Sisters Crispy Popiah in the Ah Weng Koh Hainan Tea kopitiam. These delectable crispy spring rolls are available with chicken or prawn stuffing, crunchy vegetables and tangy sauces.
If you have time, pop down to the vibrant and bustling Pudu Market (open 4am-2pm) to see the raw ingredients of your breakfast very much alive including clucking chickens and jelly-like fresh cow tongues.
If you visit Pudu in the evening, wander down to Glutton Street (Pudu Wai Sek Kai). This simple outdoor food market sells typically yummy street food like deep-fried squid, corn on the cobs and steamed bao (Chinese buns filled with meat or red bean paste). Choose a stall with a long queue and a steaming-hot wok. Other street eats around Kuala Lumpur
The largest street food market in Kuala Lumpur is the mammoth once-a-week affair in Taman Connaught . On Wednesday evenings, this street in Cheras is home to over 700 traders who set up shop to offer everything from spicy chicken satay sticks to fresh sushi.
If you’re in town on a Sunday evening, head west out of the city to the suburb of Tamun Tun Dr Ismail (TTDI for short). Experience a truly local night market (Sundays 4-9pm) and treat yourself to melt-in-your-mouth deep fried chicken skin (the antithesis of a health food but so good), apam balik (sweet pancakes) and more delicious satay.
Of course, you don’t need to head anywhere, in particular, to find street food in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysians LOVE to eat. All around the city you will see food vans parked up on the corners of streets selling simple snacks like noodles. Steam boat vans are incredibly popular. Here, you can choose a stick of tofu, chicken or fish ball which you dip in a steaming, hot broth before slathering in sauce and enjoying.
Likewise, virtually every street corner has a cafe selling nasi kandar (rice served with a variety of curries and side dishes). These basic kopitiams have plastic chairs spilling out onto the street and are more or less street food given that most of their kitchens and dining areas take over the sidewalk! What are the alternatives to street food in Kuala Lumpur?
So, if the locals in Kuala Lumpur are describing traditional street food as too touristy and not authentic enough, where do they recommend?
Many of our Malaysian friends recommend Hutong Lot 10 . Some of the best street sellers in the city have moved into the basement of the Lot 10 mall to offer a sanitised version of street food. Here, the same delicious food is prepared in proper kitchens and served on standard chairs and tables. This definitely has appeal for families and those sheltering from the rain and the humidity.
Another favourite at the moment is Tapak Urban Dining Street off Jalan Ampang. Even street food in KL has gone hipster! Here you can dine on dendeng-style tacos (an interesting mix of Indonesian and Mexican flavours) whilst taking a selfie with the Petronas Towers in the background. Tapak Urban Dining is the place to savour innovative takes on local staples in an enjoyable environment. Around 30 food trucks serve food daily from about 6pm to midnight. It is a safe and clean place for families with live music on some nights. However, expect the prices to go with it! There are now branches in Petaling Jaya and Cheras as well.
If you head up to Glutton Street in Pudu, but nothing takes your fancy at the night market, or if it’s raining, walk 5 minutes down the road to Sek Yuen restaurant . Make sure you get a table in the fabulous art-deco building, not the gloomy restaurant next door. The incredibly atmospheric setting will take you back in time. There’s no menu. Just order roast pork, duck or chicken from the wait staff. Add on some rice, vegetables and a beer. And enjoy Malaysian comfort food at its best. Plan your visit to Kuala Lumpur around experiencing street food
Before moving to Kuala Lumpur, we had no idea that Malaysian cuisine was so eclectic, abundant and unquestionably delicious. Great snacks are available everywhere and anytime. Sampling the street food will not only tantalise your taste buds, but it will also give you a lesson into the complexities of Malaysia’s history and cultural diversity. If you’re visiting Kuala Lumpur make sure that you occasionally leave the air-conditioned shopping malls that dominate the city and instead try some awesome street eats.
About the Author: Kirsty is a British family travel blogger currently living in sunny Malaysia. She has travelled to over 100 countries including 25 with her young children. Her family travel blog “ World for a Girl ” takes a unique look at travelling the world whilst uncovering women’s history and global feminist issues. You can also follow her adventures on Pinterest and Facebook . 3.139003 101.686855 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Social Media Love:

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Here’s 8 Spots To Explore Hong Kong’s Booming Art Scene (Near Halal Food!)

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From colourful street art to refurbished spaces and art exhibitions, Hong Kong has art spots for everyone, even if you’re not an arts enthusiast. In this article, we’ve rounded up 8 of these spots for your art trail. To make it even easier for you, we’ve provided the halal food options near the art spots too 😉
#HHWT Tip: Need help planning your Hong Kong trip? Our 6D5N Muslim-friendly itinerary will make sure you have an epic time!
Sai Ying Pun 1. Artlane (Street Art)
Once under the radar, the up-and-coming district of Sai Ying Pun is now characterised by its Instagrammable street murals. Stepping out of the Sai Ying Pun MTR station, you’d immediately be able to see old residential buildings which have been revitalised with a splash of colour, thanks to the works of local and Hong Kong-based international artists.
These murals are inspired by street art in major cities like New York and London, and they were painted with the themes of art and music of the SoHo district.
The bulk of these artworks can be found at Ki Ling Lane and Chung Ching Street. With such bright colours and striking characters, it’ll be hard to miss them, especially this iconic flight of stairs (pictured above). Be sure to take your time to explore not just the area’s shop facades, but also its back alleys!
Directions: Take the MTR Island Line to Sai Ying Pun Station and take exit B3.
Halal food options:
Chrisly Café
Artlane is just a short distance away from what is possibly Hong Kong’s most authentic halal bakery, Chrisly Café! Co-owned by a Muslim, Chrisly serves halal egg tarts, pineapple bun (bo lo bao) and more. While traditional egg tarts use lard, Chrisly uses peanut and vegetarian oil instead ☺️
Do note that although the entire café is not halal, Chrisly’s bakery is separate from the main kitchen and they went to great lengths to ensure that all ingredients used in the bakery are halal.
P.S. We had a chat with Martin Khan, the co-owner of Chrisly Café, on our last visit to Hong Kong. Find out more about his story here !
Halal status: Halal-certified bakery (only the bakery section of the café is halal) Address: Shop 3018, 3/F, Shun Tak Centre, 168-200 Connaught Road Central Opening hours: 7am to 7pm daily Directions: Take the MTR Island line from Sai Ying Pun and alight at Sheung Wan Station. The café is tucked at the far end of level 3/F in Shun Tak Centre. You’ll pass by Starbucks and the Macau ferry counters. Continue walking straight till you see the café!
Central 2. PMQ, Old Town Central
Once a dormitory for police officers, PMQ (short for Police Married Quarters) is now a refurbished space where art meets shopping and food.
Credit: @arianiar on Instagram
Here’s where you can get an all-in-one shopping experience – uncover unique souvenirs, local designer boutiques while going in and out of art galleries and design studios. Almost 100 design and creative enterprises call PMQ home. What’s also interesting about PMQ is that its stairs and corners are dotted with artworks, so you can snap that perfect photo for the ‘gram 😍
Credit: @hlsy.131 on Instagram
PMQ also holds art shows or fairs regularly such as Draw HK which showcases the works of hundreds of local students. Plus, for those of you who are interested to learn an art form, you can occasionally sign up for art workshops. There’s always something interesting happening at PMQ!
#HHWT Tip: Be sure to check out the street art on the sloped streets around PMQ too. Head over to Hollywood Road or Graham Street for the most iconic murals.
Address: 35, Aberdeen St, Central, Hong Kong Opening hours: 7am – 11pm (shops open 11am – 8pm) Directions: PMQ is about 5-10 minutes’ walk from Sheung Wan (Exit E2), Hong Kong (Exit E1) and Central (Exit C) MTR Stations
P.S. There’s so much to see and do in Hong Kong that it can be a tad overwhelming sometimes. But don’t worry, our handy digital guide will help you out!🤗 3. Tai Kwun
In a sea of skyscrapers in the Central district, Tai Kwun stands out as a fragment of Hong Kong’s past, with its restored colonial architecture. While PMQ used to be the police dormitories, Tai Kwun used to be the former Central Police Station, including the iconic Victoria Prison.
Fun fact: Did you know that former Vietnamese communist leader Ho Chi Minh was once held at Victoria Prison?😱
Credit: @zxue.s on Instagram
Once a restricted space, you’re now free to explore all of the buildings in Tai Kwun to admire its architecture or even sign up for interactive tours and attend exhibitions to learn more about Hong Kong’s history.
Credit: @bernardblee on Instagram
Tai Kwun is also an important hub for performances and art. Head over to Tai Kwun Contemporary which holds 6-8 exhibitions a year. Arts enthusiasts can also catch films or watch theatre, music or dance performances here – in both its indoor and outdoor spaces 😉
Address: 10 Hollywood Rd, Central, Hong Kong Opening hours: 10am – 11pm daily Directions: Take the MTR to Central Station and exit at D1. From there, cross Wellington Street and Lyndhurst Terrace to Hollywood Road.
Halal food options:
Ebeneezer’s Kebabs & Pizzeria
After immersing yourself in art at PMQ and Tai Kwun, head over to Ebeneezer’s to fill your tummy. This halal chain specialises in Middle Eastern and Indian cuisine.
Credit: @ ii aa on Instagram
Take a bite into their scrumptious doner kebabs, biryanis or curries which are sure to satisfy your hunger!😋
Halal status: Halal-certified Address: G/F, 24 Hollywood Rd, Central, Hong Kong Opening hours: 10.30am – 6am (Sun – Thur), 10.30am – 7am (Fri – Sat, PH) Directions: Ebeneezer’s is just outside Tai Kwun and a 5-minutes’ walk away from PMQ.
Wan Chai 4. Gaia Exhibition, Lee Tung Avenue (and Citywalk)
Ever wondered how the Earth looks like from the moon? Well, head over to Lee Tung Avenue in Wan Chai for the Gaia exhibition where a replica of the Earth is displayed.
In case you’re wondering, the exhibit, which is 1.8 million times smaller than the real Earth, is designed by UK artist Luke Jerram with a detailed NASA imagery of the Earth’s surface. It has toured in England, Ireland and Taiwan before coming to Hong Kong. And guess what? This Earth rotates too, albeit at a much faster speed (1 rotation every 4 minutes) 😱
#HHWT Tip: To see how the Earth really looks like from the moon, you’d have to stand 211 metres away from it.
Besides Lee Tung Avenue, the Earth will also make an appearance at Citywalk Shopping Centre in Tsuen Wan. Not only is this exhibition a marvel, but it also hopes to raise public awareness on environmental issues. Art with a purpose? We’re all for it!👏
Lee Tung Ave
Address: Central Piazza, Lee Tung Ave, 200, Queen’s Rd East, Wan Chai, Hong Kong Opening hours: 19 Mar – 7 May, 3pm – 11pm daily
Citywalk
Address: Vertical Garden, Citywalk 1, Tsuen Wan, Yeung Uk Rd Opening hours: 19 Apr – 19 May, 10am – 10pm
Halal food options:
Islamic Centre Canteen
You’re in luck because the Islamic Centre Canteen is only a 3-minute tram ride (or 11-minute walk!) away from Lee Tung Avenue. With a wide range of steamed and fried dim sum, you’re guaranteed to satiate all your cravings for Chinese food here!
Our top picks here are their soft and succulent steamed siew mai, har kow (shrimp dumplings) and the deep fried shrimp wanton, so be sure to get a bite of those 🤤
#HHWT Tip: Do remember to visit before 3pm as dim sum is not available after. However, they do serve Cantonese dishes in the late afternoon to dinner time.
Halal status: Halal-certified Address: 5th floor, Osman Ramju Sadick Islamic Centre, 40 Oi Kwan Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong Opening Hours: 10am to 3pm (dim sum), 6pm to 9pm (only Cantonese dishes) Directions: Take the tram from Luaroad Road stop and alight at Tonnochy Road stop. Alternatively, you can also walk along Wan Chai Rd from Lee Tung Avenue to the Islamic Centre Canteen.
Wai Kee
Craving for roast duck instead? Then head over to Wai Kee located in the Bowrington Road Market.
One bite into their tender duck meat and you’ll realise why it’s so highly raved! The meat is well-marinated and the skin is slightly crispy. While you’re here, you should also try their Mutton Curry rice and tasty wonton noodles too.
#HHWT Tip: Love dim sum and roast duck? Then our guide to 10 awesome halal eateries in Hong Kong will surely keep your tummy full!
Halal status: Muslim-owned Address: Shop 5, Bowrington Road Cooked Food Centre, 1/F, Bowrington Road Market, 21 Bowrington Road, Wan Chai Opening Hours: 10am to 6pm (only take-away orders after 5.30pm) Directions: Take the tram from Luaroad Rd stop and alight at Canal Rd West. The food centre is located on the 2nd floor of the Bowrington Road Indoor Market building. Enter via the escalator on the Bowrington Road side of the building.
Tsim Sha Tsui 5. Avenue of Stars (AoS)
Film and TV enthusiasts will love the newly renovated Avenue of Stars (AoS)!
Featuring handprints of over a hundred celebrities emulating the famous Hollywood Walk of Fame, the AoS pays homage to the Hong Kong entertainment industry. The handprints can be found on the wooden handrails overlooking the stunning Hong Kong skyline and Victoria Harbour 😊
Other than handprints, be sure to look out for the iconic statues of Hong Kong stars Bruce Lee and Anita Mui. Not only can you pose for photos with them, but you can even interact with the superstars using Augmented Reality (AR) technology.
As part of the new features of the AoS, you can also expect stalls and mobile carts selling all sorts of creative local souvenirs including those from popular brands like Mei Lok Store and even limited edition AoS knick-knacks and exclusive Bruce Lee souvenirs.
Address: Waterfront Podium Garden, Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon Directions: Take the MTR and alight at East Tsim Sha Tsui Station. Exit at P1, use the staircase or the escalator adjacent to Tsim Sha Tsui East (Mody Road) Bus Terminus to reach AoS. 6. Xiqu Centre
If you’re interested to immerse yourself in Cantonese opera and traditional Chinese theatre, then Xiqu Centre is perfect for you.
#HHWT Tip: To help you get acquainted with local culture even more, we’ve prepared a list of 17 useful Cantonese phrases to help you blend in with the locals!
Credit: @gordana_c_micic on Instagram
This newly opened performing arts venue boasts designs inspired by traditional Chinese lanterns, but with a modern twist. What’s really interesting is that its entrance is made to resemble parting curtains. Definitely perfect for a photo opportunity 😜
P.S. If you’re a photo enthusiast, you’d want to check out our list of the top 15 picture-perfect spots in Hong Kong!
Credit: @westkowloon on Instagram
The most striking feature of the Xiqu Centre is its Tea House theatre as it brings you back in time to create the atmosphere of Hong Kong’s early 20th-century tea house. Believe it or not, while watching a performance here, the audience will be treated to tea and dim sum too!
#HHWT Tip: Even if you don’t watch the performances, you can also learn more about traditional Chinese theatre by attending film screenings, workshops, talks, exhibitions and guided tours.
Address: 88 Austin Road West, Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon
Halal food options:
Hung’s Chinese Restaurant
You can never get enough of Chinese food while in Hong Kong, so why not head over to Hung’s Chinese Restaurant for a scrumptious meal? Located in Chungking Mansion where there’s a whole lot of halal food options, Hung’s stands out for being the only one here serving yummy Chinese cuisine.
Our favourite dish has got to be their crispy roasted chicken which is so juicy and crispy. Pair it with their tantalising black pepper beef and fried rice for an unforgettable meal 🤗
#HHWT Tip: Chungking Mansion is also home to other great halal eateries like Khyber Pass Mess, Sedique Halal Mess, Syed Bukhara and more.
Halal status: Muslim-owned Address: Chungking Mansion, 36-44 Nathan Rd, Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong Opening hours: 11am to 11pm daily Directions: Hung’s is about a 10-minute walk from Avenue of Stars and 17-minute walk from Xiqu Centre.
Tsuen Wan 7. The Mills
What used to be a cotton mill in the 1960s has now been refurbished into a heritage and art space. One of Hong Kong’s latest creative spots, The Mills is now a design hub with plenty of local designer shops, cafes and Instagram-worthy corners 😍
For those of you who are interested to learn more about the history of Hong Kong’s textile industry, head over to the Centre for Heritage, Arts and Textile (CHAT). There are exhibitions, artist talks and even workshops for you to get acquainted with textiles.
But if you’re just here to soak in the nostalgic vibes, you’d be pleased to know that the renovated space has retained some of the architecture of the original cotton mill. Taking a walk in the compounds of The Mills will definitely take you back in time! Be sure to head outside to snap some shots with the picturesque murals reflecting life in the cotton mill.
Address: 45 Pak Tin Par St, Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong Opening hours: 10am – 10pm daily Directions: Take the MTR Tsuen Wan Line to Tai Wo Hau Station. Then, take bus 302 (bound for Hong Kong Garden) and alight at Thriving Industrial Centre. From there, walk 4 minutes to The Mills.
Halal food options:
Lanzhou Halal Beef Noodles
Just down the road from The Mills, you’ll find a halal eatery selling Lanzhou hand pulled beef noodles! Take your pick from soupy or dry beef noodles and the best part is, they are wallet-friendly and come in generous portions.
As the stall has recently just opened, the menu is fairly limited but they have added some new dishes too such as stuffed minced lamb and beef puffs. After having a satisfying meal, wash your meal down with their fragrant herbal tea!
Halal status: Halal-certified Address: 283 Sha Tsui Road, Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong Opening hours: 10am – 10pm daily Directions: From The Mills, take bus 302 or 84.
Yau Ma Tei/Mongkok and Sham Shui Po 8. Shutter Art by Urban Canvas
The shopping streets of Yau Ma Tei, Mongkok and Sham Shui Po have been around for decades and at first glance, you won’t think that you’ll find art here. But thanks to a community art project called HK Urban Canvas, some of the shutters of shops in these districts have been turned into vibrant artworks 😍
What’s really unique about these graffiti art is that they reflect the stories of the shop owners and their profession. So, it’s really interesting to see how the artists portray the shop owners!
P.S. There’s more to Sham Shui Po than just street art! Check out our Muslim-friendly guide to Sham Shui Po as we uncover the best things to see and do in the district.
It’s also really fascinating as the project signifies that art isn’t only for art enthusiasts. These streets are frequented every day by locals so it’s intriguing to see how everyday life is mirrored into these artworks. Not to mention that they make picture-perfect spots too!
#HHWT Tip: To help you navigate your way through these shutter artworks, make sure you download the HK Urban Canvas app on your phone! Not only will you be able to find them, but you’ll also get to learn more about the stories behind the artworks.
Halal food options:
Ma’s Restaurant
Feeling hungry while finding these artworks? Then don’t forget to stop by Ma’s Restaurant in Sham Shui Po which specialises in halal Xinjiang cuisine! It’s just steps away from the shopping haven of Apliu Street.
The signature veal goulash steals the show here. Stuffed with beef and yummy stew, this is crispy on the outside and chewy on the inside, making it a really comforting treat. Order their chilli beef and sweet and sour fish for a perfect meal 😝
Halal status: Halal-certified Address: 21-25 Cheung Sha Wan Road, Hong Kong Opening hours: 11.30am to 11pm daily Directions: From MTR Prince Edward, take Exit E and walk for 5 minutes to Ma’s Restaurant.
#HHWT Tip: While you’re already at Sham Shui Po, you must head over to A1 Tofu Company for their mouthwatering silky beancurd. There’s a wide variety of flavours to choose from but the most popular ones are black sesame, Horlicks and almond paste. It’s located right outside Sham Shui Po MTR Station exit C2! BONUS: Must-see temporary installations
KAWS: HOLIDAY
As part of the Hong Kong Arts Month, the city will be having a giant art installation by US street artist, Kaws.
The installation is a 37-metre inflatable of the artist’s signature character Companion called the KAWS: HOLIDAY and it will float on the Victoria Harbour in end March (pictured above is the test float in Tai O Fishing Village).
This artist’s impression shows how big the inflatable looks beside the Star Ferry! So, art enthusiasts can definitely look out for it against the backdrop of Hong Kong’s glitzy skyline. In case you’re wondering, this is not the first time that a giant installation has made its way to Hong Kong. 6 years ago, the city had a giant yellow rubber duck which formed a cute addition to the cityscape, and we’re excited to see what else is in store in future ☺️
Location: Victoria Harbour Viewing location: Central and Western District Promenade (can be accessed by Central MTR Station) Dates: 22 – 31 Mar 2019
Arts Train
As part of the Hong Kong Arts Month 2019, you’ll be treated to a visual feast when you step into the city’s MTR Island Line trains which passes by several art districts. For a moment, you’d probably think that you’re in an art gallery!
There are 5 different art zones, where you can admire various artforms from Hong Kong’s signature neon signs to street art, traditional Chinese art and even Chinese opera. Look out for the iconic Nathan Rd neon signs or catch the well-loved Cantonese opera characters like Monkey King, Princess Changping and Bao Qingtian.
You’ll also be able to spot Hong Kong’s most photographed street art by Alex Croft (original art is at Graham St) which is a colourful depiction of the city’s old townhouses. To make your commute even more exciting, why not make the artworks come alive by using Augmented Reality (AR) and the face swap function on your mobile device?
Date: 7 – 27 Mar 2019 Location: MTR Island Line (limited service hours)
Now that you know where all these hotspots are, it’s time to start planning your art trail and explore Hong Kong’s lively art and culture scene! Whether you’re a passionate art enthusiast, a curious traveller or simply just looking for the perfect photo spots, there’s bound to be something in store for you 😉
P.S. Before you go, make sure you read these 16 essential budget tips to help you make the most out of your trip!
This article is brought to you by Hong Kong Tourism Board.

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A Tale of Two Texas Cities–Rock ‘n’ Roll and a Free 72 oz. Steak Dinner

Trump convertirá a Brasil en aliado militar preferente, quizá en la OTAN 9 hours ago Home » National » A Tale of Two Texas Cities–Rock ‘n’ Roll and a Free 72 oz. Steak Dinner A Tale of Two Texas Cities–Rock ‘n’ Roll and a Free 72 oz. Steak Dinner
By Patricia Alisau Buddy Holly poster from the 1950s in Lubbock, his hometown. (Photo by Patricia Alisau).
Known as the hub of the southern Panhandle, Lubbock is a college town dominated by Texas Tech University, organic food restaurants, and a trendy, new entertainment district downtown called The Depot. The locals love to brag that Lubbock is so small (population 350,000) that you can drive to anywhere in 20 minutes. And that it’s so flat and treeless that if your dog runs away, you can see him for 2 miles. The Panhandle, referred to as the High Plains of Texas, is a semi-arid rectangle as big as the state of West Virginia with a little to spare.
When the multi-million-dollar Buddy Holly Hall of Performing Arts and Science opens next year in Lubbock, it will be just one of many tributes due its favorite son and 1950s rock ‘n’ roll legend. A Buddy Holly Center already holds a permanent exhibition of his life from the days of parking lot gigs to performing with Elvis Presley, better known as the “Hillbilly Cat,” in those days. Holly’s breakout gold record, “That’ll Be the Day” rocketed him to fame. But his budding career tragically ended in a plane crash at the age of 22 along with fellow performers Ritchie Valens and the Big Bopper. A modest granite tombstone in the local cemetery marks his grave where fans regularly leave small gifts of flowers, picks and drumsticks. Lubbock’s Steel House made of 110 tons of scrap metal built over a period of 34 years by sculptor Robert Bruno. (Photo by Patricia Alisau).
Apart from a respectable live music scene–some say that rivals Austin, Texas–in the many bars and dives in The Depot neighborhood, Lubbock has its share of oddball attractions. One is a home made of 110 tons of scrap metal called the “Steel House,” which looks more like a flying saucer with legs. But that’s where sculptor Robert Bruno, a self-taught architect, spent 30 some years building it and only living in it the last seven months of his life. A tour of the three-story, 2,200 square-foot interior reveals a pure form of organic architecture with unusual curved rooms with long curving windows, stained glass, a South American olive-wood staircase and imperfect tiles.
Not so oddball is the town’s growing wine business and one of the popular vineyards is Llano Estacado, the name Francisco Vazquez de Coronado gave the region in the 16th century when he swept through looking for gold. One of the oldest wineries started by two university professors in a shed, its Merlots and Chardonnays are top prizewinners in state competitions and a wine tasting tour will introduce other selections from their vines. A newcomer is a red with Dr. Pepper overtones created as a nod to the popular Texas cola. Sign above the Big Texas Steak Ranch where a big appetite may get you a free 72 oz. steak dinner. (Photo by Patricia Alisau).
A two-hour drive north of Lubbock crosses over into the northern High Plains of the Panhandle and Amarillo. It’s a boots ‘n jeans kind of place, is a little bigger than Lubbock and closer to New Mexico, Colorado and Oklahoma than to any of the major Texas cities.
While towns like Lubbock have a growing organic cuisine movement, Amarillo sticks to the basics with down home grub like the heralded 72 ounce steak dinner at the Big Texan Steak Ranch. Hard core eaters get it free if they finish it along with the sides in less than an hour. Otherwise, they pony up $72 for the meal. Started in the 1960s by the Lee family, it began as a diversion for cow hands, who walked away with nothing more than bragging rights as a prize. But that was incentive enough to keep it going. Apparently gender doesn’t matter either. Danny Lee, one of two brothers running the restaurant, recalled when a 118-pound woman wolfed down a meal in 20 minutes.
Originally located on iconic Route 66, the Big Texan moved in 1970 to a bigger highway when it supplanted ’66. Although the heyday of the route is long past, it still marks Amarillo as the nearly halfway point between start and finish, between Chicago and Los Angeles. An historic one-mile stretch on Route 66 in downtown Amarillo is filled with repurposed saloons, shops, a biker cafe, and restaurants, which keeps the story alive and is a great place to buy memorabilia of the era. Most of the rest of the 30-mile route is largely abandoned with shuttered motels, bars, gas stations, and a night club touting the “big band sound” of the ’50s. But one enterprising businessman turned an old motel into an Airbnb. And just out of town, the Cafe at Adrian claims to be the exact mid point of the old road and does a brisk business in homemade coconut pies. In all, Route 66 represents a milestone when America transitioned from dirt roads and Indian trails to today’s superhighways. Cadillac Ranch in Amarillo filled with caddies facing nose down in the dirt and signed by visitor’s graffiti. (Photo by Patricia Alisau).
Amarillo’s answer to quirky attractions is the fun Cadillac Ranch, a bunch of side-by-side caddies buried nose deep in the dirt like a Texas version of Stonehenge. Apparently, it was inspired and funded by local philanthropist Stanley March III who hired a San Francisco design firm called The Ant Farm to pull it off. Around since 1975, you can’t miss it from the highway and once you’re through the gates, you’re encouraged to spray paint the Cadillacs to your heart’s content along with the other budding graffiti artists.
A high point to any visit is Palo Duro State Park, a rugged red sandstone canyon on record as the second-largest in the U.S. It’s an easy drive 25 miles southeast of Amarillo. For a musical snapshot on the Panhandle’s Old West days, you can book tickets for “Texas,” a live Broadway-style production in the park’s amphitheater in summer months. Stargazing is superb as well as the 40 miles of hiking, biking and equestrian trails. If you’d rather see the canyon from the air, a new zip line will take you soaring over it. One of the first takers was a 103-year-old woman, so age is no limit and neither are wheelchairs as two of the ramps are outfitted with them. Palo Duro Canyon in Amarillo (Photo by Patricia Alisau).
Back in the day, the canyon was sacred ground and headquarters for the Comanche empire, which held it for a century and a half before being driven out by the US Calvary in 1874. Their renowned leader, Quanah Parker, whose mother was Cynthia Ann Parker, is legendary as a fierce warrior and his name is still spoken with respect in these parts.
Another legend and a close friend of Parker’s is Charles Goodnight. Together, the two of them helped save the buffalo from extinction, which were almost wiped out from hunting when Charles Goodnight arrived in the 1870s to start a cattle ranch. Descendants of the original herd can still be seen at his museum-home 40 miles from Amarillo. As a boon to his cowboys, Goodnight invented the chuck wagon, which kept them fed on long cattle drives. Cattle and a new railroad spurred the founding of Amarillo a decade later. A car from the heyday of Route 66 with a map of the cross country highway. (Photo by Patricia Alisau).
Whether its cowboys, Comanches or conquistadors, Lubbock and Amarillo represent the unique culture of the Texas Panhandle and can be visited separately or as a duo.
How to Get There: Lubbock and Amarillo have airports served by major airlines.
Best Time to Visit: The spring and fall are best for more comfortable weather. The summer months can be hot, hot and hot and nighttime in winter can dip below freezing.
For more information: www.visitlubbock.org and www.visitamarillo.com Post Views: 185

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This Holi Savour Colourful Culinary Treasures at The Westin Mumbai Garden City

This Holi Savour Colourful Culinary Treasures at The Westin Mumbai Garden City
As the colorful Holi uproar meets the skies and you cheer in the festivities, Seasonal Tastes at The Westin Mumbai Garden City lays
out an exciting lunch for you as you bask in the glory of the new summer sun. Soak in the festive vibes with an afternoon of fun and
great moments!
Indulge your senses and enhance your colour spectrum as your palate succumbs to gourmet food, especially crafted for the festival.
From freshly made Gujjiyas and thandai barfi to a refreshing live Thandai & Lassi station with variety of flavors – Vanilla, Kesar,
Kewda, Badam pista, Mango lassi, Strawberry lassi and Masala chaas. Savour an array of Indian delicacies like Mutton pepper fry,
Chooza makhani, Prawns balchao, Paneer tikka masala, Subz Kundan kaliyan, Valache birde and much more coupled with
International delicacies.
The vibrant offerings showcasing a stellar array of authentic Indian dishes coupled with colorful and elegant desserts will augment the
joyous and lively Holi Afternoon. Relish an eclectic mix of myriad cuisines and live counters specially curated to tantalize your palate.
Enjoy the festival of colours with your loved ones and take your celebrations to a whole new level at Seasonal Tastes at The Westin
Mumbai Garden City.
Date: Thursday, 21st March 2019
Venue: Seasonal Tastes, The Westin Mumbai Garden City

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china india

게시판 china india
krchlhtydnmdfg ・ 19시간 전 URL 복사 이웃추가 본문 기타 기능 번역보기 China
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For the Republic of China, see Taiwan . For other uses, see China (disambiguation) .
“PRC” redirects here. For other uses, see PRC (disambiguation) .
People’s Republic of China
中华人民共和国 ( Chinese )
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ( Pinyin )
Flag
National Emblem
Anthem:
” March of the Volunteers “
义勇军进行曲
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ
MENU
0:00
Area controlled by the People’s Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Capital
Beijing [a]
39°55′N 116°23′E
Largest city
Shanghai [1]
Official languages
Standard Chinese [2] [b]
Recognised regional languages
Mongolian Uyghur Tibetan Zhuang various others [3]
Official script
Simplified Chinese [c]
Ethnic groups
91.51% Han [4]
55 minorities [d] [show]
Religion
See Religion in China
Demonym(s)
Chinese
Government
Unitary one-party socialist republic [5]
• Party General Secretary
and President
Xi Jinping [e]
• Premier
Li Keqiang
• Congress Chairman
Li Zhanshu
• Conference Chairman
Wang Yang
• First Secretary of the Party Secretariat
Wang Huning
• Secretary of the Discipline Inspection Commission
Zhao Leji
• First Vice Premier
Han Zheng
• Vice President
Wang Qishan [f]
Legislature
National People’s Congress
Formation
• First pre-imperial dynasty
c. 2070 bce
• First imperial dynasty
221 bce
• Republic established
1 January 1912
• Proclamation of the People’s Republic
1 October 1949
• Current constitution
4 December 1982
• Last polity admitted
20 December 1999
Area
• Total
9,596,961 km 2 (3,705,407 sq mi) [g] ( 3rd/4th )
• Water (%)
2.8% [h]
Population
• 2016 estimate
1,403,500,365 [10] ( 1st )
• 2010 census
1,339,724,852 [11] ( 1st )
• Density
145 [12] /km 2 (375.5/sq mi) ( 83rd )
GDP ( PPP )
2019 estimate
• Total
$27.449 trillion [13] ( 1st )
• Per capita
$19,559 [13] ( 79th )
GDP (nominal)
2019 estimate
• Total
$14.172 trillion [13] ( 2nd )
• Per capita
$10,099 [13] ( 71st )
Gini (2015)
46.2 [14]
high
HDI (2017)
0.752 [15]
high · 86th
Currency
Renminbi (yuan; ¥) [i] ( CNY )
Time zone
UTC +8 ( China Standard Time )
Date format
yyyy-mm-dd
or yyyy年m月d日
( CE ; CE-1949 )
Driving side
right [j]
Calling code
+86
ISO 3166 code
CN
Internet TLD
.cn
.中國
.中国
China , officially the People’s Republic of China ( PRC ), is a country in East Asia and the world’s most populous country , with a population of around 1.404 billion . [10] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. [k] [16] Governed by the Communist Party of China , the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities ( Beijing , Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau .
China emerged as one of the world’s earliest civilizations , in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain . For millennia, China’s political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties , beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE . [17] Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and established the first Chinese empire . The succeeding Han dynasty , which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass , [18] along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern Song (960–1127) completed the Four Great Inventions . Tang culture spread widely in Asia , as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa . [19] Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution , when a republic replaced the Qing dynasty . The Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People’s Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China , while the Kuomintang -led government retreated to the island of Taiwan . The political status of Taiwan remains disputed.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978 , China’s economy has been one of the world’s fastest-growing with annual growth rates consistently above 6 percent. [20] According to the World Bank, China’s GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. [21] Since 2010, China has been the world’s second-largest economy by nominal GDP [22] and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP). [23] China is also the world’s largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. [24] China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world’s largest standing army and second-largest defense budget . [25] [26] The PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism . China is also a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , WTO , APEC , BRICS , the BCIM , and the G20 . In recent times, China has been widely characterized as a global superpower . [27] [28] [29]
Contents
1 Names
2 History
2.1 Prehistory
2.2 Early dynastic rule
2.3 Imperial China
2.4 End of dynastic rule
2.5 Republic of China (1912–1949)
2.6 People’s Republic of China (1949–present)
3 Geography
3.1 Landscape and climate
3.2 Biodiversity
3.3 Environmental issues
3.4 Political geography
4 Politics
4.1 Communist Party
4.2 Government
4.3 Administrative divisions
4.4 Foreign relations
4.5 Sociopolitical issues, human rights and reform
5 Military
6 Economy
6.1 Economic history and growth
6.2 China in the global economy
6.3 Class and income inequality
7 Science and technology
7.1 Historical
7.2 Modern era
8 Infrastructure
8.1 Telecommunications
8.2 Transport
8.3 Water supply and sanitation
9 Demographics
9.1 Ethnic groups
9.2 Languages
9.3 Urbanization
9.4 Education
9.5 Health
9.6 Religion
9.7 Notes
10 Culture
10.1 Literature
10.2 Cuisine
10.3 Sports
11 See also
12 Footnotes
13 References
14 Further reading
15 External links
Names
Main article: Names of China
China
“China” in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese
中国
Traditional Chinese
中國
Hanyu Pinyin
Zhōngguó
Literal meaning
Middle or Central State [30]
show Transcriptions
Portuguese name
Portuguese
China
People’s Republic of China
“People’s Republic of China” in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese
中华人民共和国
Traditional Chinese
中華人民共和國
Hanyu Pinyin
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
show Transcriptions
Tibetan name
Tibetan
ཀྲུང་ཧྭ་མི་དམངས་སྤྱི
མཐུན་རྒྱལ་ཁབ
show Transcriptions
Zhuang name
Zhuang
Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic
show Transcriptions
Uyghur name
Uyghur
جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىتى
show Transcriptions
Portuguese name
Portuguese
República Popular da China
The word “China” has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves. It has been traced through Portuguese , Malay , and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna , used in ancient India. [31]
“China” appears in Richard Eden ‘s 1555 translation [l] of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa . [m] [31] Barbosa’s usage was derived from Persian Chīn ( چین ), which was in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna ( चीन ). [36] Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century bce) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century bce). [37] In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived ultimately from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC). [38] Although this derivation is still given in various sources, [39] it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature. The word may have originally referred to a state such as Yelang . Later, the meaning transferred to China as a whole. [37] [40] The origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary . [31]
The official name of the modern state is the “People’s Republic of China” ( Chinese : 中华人民共和国 ; pinyin : Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ). The shorter form is “China” Zhōngguó ( 中国 ), from zhōng (“central”) and guó (“state”), [n] a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne . [o] It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China’s Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing . [42] It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived “barbarians” . [42] The name Zhongguo is also translated as “Middle Kingdom” in English. [44]
History
Main articles: History of China and Timeline of Chinese history
Prehistory
Main article: Chinese prehistory
10,000 years old pottery, Xianren Cave culture (18000–7000 bce)
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. [45] The hominid fossils of Peking Man , a Homo erectus who used fire , [46] were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing ; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago . [47] The fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens (dated to 125,000–80,000 years ago ) have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County , Hunan . [48] Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 bce, [49] Damaidi around 6000 bce, [50] Dadiwan from 5800–5400 bce, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium bce. Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols (7th millennium bce) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system. [49]
Early dynastic rule
Further information: Dynasties in Chinese history
Yinxu , the ruins of the capital of the late Shang dynasty (14th century bce)
According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia , which emerged around 2100 bce. [51] The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou , Henan in 1959. [52] It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period. [53] The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. [54] The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century bce. [55] Their oracle bone script (from c. 1500 bce) [56] [57] represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found, [58] and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters . [59]
The Shang was conquered by the Zhou , who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries bce, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Some principalities eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou, no longer fully obeyed the Zhou king and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period . By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries bce, there were only seven powerful states left.
Imperial China
China’s First Emperor, Qin Shi Huang , is famed for having united the Warring States ‘ walls to form the Great Wall of China . Most of the present structure, however, dates to the Ming dynasty .
The Warring States period ended in 221 bce after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms, reunited China and established the dominant order of totalitarian autocracy . King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty . He enacted Qin’s legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters , measurements , road widths (i.e., cart axles’ length), and currency . His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi , Guangdong , and Vietnam . [60] The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor’s death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion. [61] [62]
Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned , [p] the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 bce and ce 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese . [61] [62] The Han expanded the empire’s territory considerably , with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia , South Korea , and Yunnan , and the recovery of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue . Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road , replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. [64] Despite the Han’s initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism , Qin’s legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors. [65]
The Terracotta Army (c. 210 bce) discovered outside the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor , now Xi’an
After the end of the Han dynasty , a period of strife known as Three Kingdoms followed, [66] whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature . At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty . The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally-disabled emperor ; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen States . The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei , whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors’ apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects , largely integrating them into Chinese culture. In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song . The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties , with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581. The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture and economy, constructed the Grand Canal , and patronized Buddhism . However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war in northern Korea provoked widespread unrest. [67] [68]
Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology, and culture entered a golden age. [69] The Tang Empire returned control of the Western Regions and the Silk Road, [70] and made the capital Chang’an a cosmopolitan urban center. However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Shi Rebellion in the 8th century. [71] In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable. The Song dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao . The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade. [72]
A detail from Along the River During the Qingming Festival , a 12th-century painting showing everyday life in the Song dynasty ‘s capital, Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng )
Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses. The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism , in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, [73] and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity. [74] [75] However, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty . In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars . The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China . [76]
The 13th century brought the Mongol conquest of China . In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty ; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279. Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300. [77] A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor . Under the Ming dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture. It was during this period that admiral Zheng He led the Ming treasure voyages throughout the Indian Ocean , reaching as far as East Africa . [78]
In the early years of the Ming dynasty, China’s capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. With the budding of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations . [79] The scholar-official stratum became a supporting force of industry and commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and defense against Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) and Manchu invasions led to an exhausted treasury. [80]
In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng . The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing dynasty , then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui , overthrew Li’s short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.
End of dynastic rule
A 19th-century depiction of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864)
The Qing dynasty , which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the Ming (1618–1683) cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically . [81] After the Southern Ming ended, the further conquest of the Dzungar Khanate added Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang to the empire. [82] The centralized autocracy was strengthened to crack down on anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the Haijin (“sea ban”), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition , causing social and technological stagnation. [83] [84] In the mid-19th century, the dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France. China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British [85] under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking , the first of the Unequal Treaties . The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) resulted in Qing China’s loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula , as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan . [86]
The Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to defeat the anti-foreign Boxers and their Qing backers.
The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the White Lotus Rebellion , the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in the northwest. The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s.
In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 , in which between 9 and 13 million people died. [87] The Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan in 1898 to establish a modern constitutional monarchy , but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi . The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–12 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China .
Republic of China (1912–1949)
Main article: Republic of China (1912–1949)
Sun Yat-sen proclaiming the establishment of the ROC in 1912
On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president. [88] However, the presidency was later given to Yuan Shikai , a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China . In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army , he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic. [89]
Yuan Shikai ( left ) and Sun Yat-sen ( right ) with flags representing the early republic
After Yuan Shikai’s death in 1916, China was politically fragmented. Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory. [90] [91] In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek , the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy , was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political maneuverings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition . [92] [93] The Kuomintang moved the nation’s capital to Nanjing and implemented “political tutelage”, an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen’s San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state. [94] [95] The political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to battle the Communist , People’s Liberation Army (PLA) against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the Chinese Civil War . This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the PLA retreated in the Long March , until Japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi’an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan . [96]
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong toasting together in 1946 following the end of World War II
The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), a theater of World War II , forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the PLA. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died. [97] An estimated 200,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation. [98] During the war, China, along with the UK, the US, and the Soviet Union, were referred to as “trusteeship of the powerful” [99] and were recognized as the Allied ” Big Four ” in the Declaration by United Nations . [100] [101] Along with the other three great powers, China was one of the four major Allies of World War II , and was later considered one of the primary victors in the war. [102] [103] After the surrender of Japan in 1945, Taiwan, including the Pescadores , was returned to Chinese control. China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. Constitutional rule was established in 1947, but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China. [104]
People’s Republic of China (1949–present)
Main article: History of the People’s Republic of China
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the PRC in 1949
Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party in control of most of mainland China , and the Kuomintang retreating offshore, reducing the ROC’s territory to only Taiwan , Hainan , and their surrounding islands. On 21 September 1949, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. [105] [106] [107] This was followed by a mass celebration in Tiananmen Square on 1 October, which became the new country’s first National Day . In 1950, the People’s Liberation Army succeeded in capturing Hainan from the ROC [108] and incorporating Tibet . [109] However, remaining Kuomintang forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s. [110] In modern US history studies, the founding of PRC China is often termed as “the loss of China” as reflected in US state policy documents of the time, which thinkers such as Noam Chomsky call the beginning of McCarthyism . [111]
The regime consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which included the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords . [112] China developed an independent industrial system and its own nuclear weapons. [113] The Chinese population increased from 550 million in 1950 to 900 million in 1974. [114] However, the Great Leap Forward , a large-scale economic and social reform project, resulted in an estimated 45 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, mostly from starvation. [115] In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution , sparking a decade of political recrimination and social upheaval which lasted until Mao’s death in 1976. In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council. [116]
After Mao’s death, the Gang of Four was quickly arrested and held responsible for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, and instituted significant economic reforms . The Communist Party loosened governmental control over citizens’ personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of working contracted to households. This marked China’s transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment . [117] China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982. In 1989, the violent suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought sanctions against the Chinese government from various countries. [118]
Jiang Zemin , Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s. Under their administration, China’s economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%. [119] [120] The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao ‘s leadership in the 2000s. However, rapid growth also severely impacted the country’s resources and environment, [121] [122] and caused major social displacement . [123] [124] Living standards continued to improve rapidly despite the late-2000s recession , but centralized political control remained tight. [125]
Preparations for a decadal Communist Party leadership change in 2012 were marked by factional disputes and political scandals . [126] During China’s 18th National Communist Party Congress in November 2012, Hu Jintao was replaced as General Secretary of the Communist Party by Xi Jinping . [127] [128] Under Xi, the Chinese government began large-scale efforts to reform its economy, [129] [130] which has suffered from structural instabilities and slowing growth. [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] The Xi–Li Administration also announced major reforms to the one-child policy and prison system. [136]
Geography
Main article: Geography of China
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for China. [137]
China’s landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south. The Himalaya , Karakoram , Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia . The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers , the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China’s coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers (9,000 mi) long and is bounded by the Bohai , Yellow , East China and South China seas. China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route – the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road (s).
Landscape and climate
Li River near Guilin , Guangxi
Yinderitu Lake in the Badain Jaran Desert in Inner Mongolia
Muztagh Ata of Kunlun Mountains in Taxkorgan , Xinjiang
The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N , and longitudes 73° and 135° E . China’s landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea , there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains , while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China’s two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River . Other major rivers include the Xi , Mekong , Brahmaputra and Amur . To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert . The world’s highest point, Mount Everest (8,848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. [138] The country’s lowest point, and the world’s third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154m) in the Turpan Depression . [139]
China’s climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons , which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist. [140] The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country’s highly complex topography .
A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts , particularly the Gobi Desert. [141] [142] Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms , prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which then spread to other parts of east Asia, including Korea and Japan. China’s environmental watchdog, SEPA , stated in 2007 that China is losing 4,000 km 2 (1,500 sq mi) per year to desertification. [143] Water quality, erosion , and pollution control have become important issues in China’s relations with other countries. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people. [144]
Biodiversity
Main article: Wildlife of China
A giant panda , China’s most famous endangered and endemic species, at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan
China is one of 17 megadiverse countries , [145] lying in two of the world’s major ecozones : the Palearctic and the Indomalaya . By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia . [146] The country signed the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 5 January 1993. [147] It later produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan , with one revision that was received by the convention on 21 September 2010. [148]
China is home to at least 551 species of mammals (the third-highest such number in the world), [149] 1,221 species of birds (eighth), [150] 424 species of reptiles (seventh) [151] and 333 species of amphibians (seventh). [152] Wildlife in China share habitat with and bear acute pressure from the world’s largest population of Homo sapiens . At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine . [153] Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and as of 2005, the country has over 2,349 nature reserves , covering a total area of 149.95 million hectares, 15 percent of China’s total land area. [154] The Baiji has recently [ when? ] been confirmed extinct.
China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants, [155] and is home to a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear , along with over 120 bird species. [156] The understorey of moist conifer forests may contain thickets of bamboo . In higher montane stands of juniper and yew , the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons . Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support as many as 146,000 species of flora. [156] Tropical and seasonal rainforests , though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island , contain a quarter of all the animal and plant species found in China. [156] China has over 10,000 recorded species of fungi , [157] and of them, nearly 6,000 are higher fungi . [158]
Environmental issues
Main article: Environmental issues in China
See also: Water resources of China and Energy policy of China
Wind turbines in Xinjiang
The traffic in Beijing
In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution . [159] [160] While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favor of rapid economic development. [161] Urban air pollution is a severe health issue in the country; the World Bank estimated in 2013 that 16 of the world’s 20 most-polluted cities are located in China. [162] And China is the country with the highest death toll because of air pollution. There are 1.14 million deaths caused by exposure to ambient air pollution. [163] China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter . [164] The country also has significant water pollution problems: 40% of China’s rivers had been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste by late 2011. [165] In 2014, the internal freshwater resources per capita of China reduced to 2,062m 3 , and it was below 500m 3 in the North China Plain , while 5,920m 3 in the world. [166] [167] [168]
In China, heavy metals also cause environmental pollution. Heavy metal pollution is an inorganic chemical hazard, which is mainly caused by lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni). Five metals among them, Pb, Cr, As, Cd, and Hg, are the key heavy metal pollutants in China. Heavy metal pollutants mainly come from mining, sewage irrigation, the manufacturing of metal-containing products, and other related production activities. High level of heavy metal exposure can also cause permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities, including reading and learning disabilities, behavioral problems, hearing loss, attention problems, and disruption in the development of visual and motor function. According to the data of a national census of pollution, China has more than 1.5 million sites of heavy metals exposure. The total volume of discharged heavy metals in the waste water, waste gas and solid wastes are around 900,000 tons each year from 2005–2011. [169]
However, China is the world’s leading investor in renewable energy and its commercialization , with $ 52 billion invested in 2011 alone; [170] [171] [172] it is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable energy projects. [173] [174] [175] By 2015, over 24% of China’s energy was derived from renewable sources, while most notably from hydroelectric power : a total installed capacity of 197 GW makes China the largest hydroelectric power producer in the world. [176] [177] China also has the largest power capacity of installed solar photovoltaics system and wind power system in the world. [178] [179] In 2011, the Chinese government announced plans to invest four trillion yuan (US$619 billion) in water infrastructure and desalination projects over a ten-year period, and to complete construction of a flood prevention and anti-drought system by 2020. [167] [180] In 2013, China began a five-year, US$277 billion effort to reduce air pollution, particularly in the north of the country. [181]
Political geography
Main articles: Borders of China and Territorial changes of the People’s Republic of China
Map showing the ROC and PRC claims
The People’s Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area [182] after Russia , and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States . [q] China’s total area is generally stated as being approximately 9,600,000 km 2 (3,700,000 sq mi). [183] Specific area figures range from 9,572,900 km 2 (3,696,100 sq mi) according to the Encyclopædia Britannica , [184] to 9,596,961 km 2 (3,705,407 sq mi) according to the UN Demographic Yearbook, [7] and the CIA World Factbook . [9]
China has the longest combined land border in the world , measuring 22,117 km (13,743 mi) from the mouth of the Yalu River to the Gulf of Tonkin . [9] China borders 14 nations , more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14. [185] China extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam , Laos , and Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia; India , Bhutan , Nepal , Afghanistan , and Pakistan [r] in South Asia; Tajikistan , Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; and Russia , Mongolia , and North Korea in Inner Asia and Northeast Asia . Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea , Japan , Vietnam , and the Philippines .
Politics
Main article: Politics of China
See also: List of current Chinese provincial leaders
The Great Hall of the People
where the National People’s Congress convenes
The Zhongnanhai , a headquarter of the Chinese government and Communist Party of China .
China’s constitution states that The People’s Republic of China “is a socialist state under the people’s democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants,” and that the state organs “apply the principle of democratic centralism.” [186] The PRC is one of the world’s only socialist states openly endorsing communism (see Ideology of the Communist Party of China ). The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist , [187] with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet , freedom of the press , freedom of assembly , the right to have children , free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion . [188] Its current political, ideological and economic system has been termed by its leaders as the ” people’s democratic dictatorship “, ” socialism with Chinese characteristics ” (which is Marxism adapted to Chinese circumstances) and the ” socialist market economy ” respectively. [189]
Communist Party
Sign in Tiananmen Square marking the 90th anniversary of the Communist Party of China
China’s constitution declares that the country is ruled “under the leadership” of the Communist Party of China (CPC). [190] As China is a de facto one-party state , the General Secretary ( party leader ) holds ultimate power and authority over state and government serving as the paramount leader . [191] The electoral system is pyramidal. Local People’s Congresses are directly elected , and higher levels of People’s Congresses up to the National People’s Congress (NPC) are indirectly elected by the People’s Congress of the level immediately below. [192] The political system is decentralized, and provincial and sub-provincial leaders have a significant amount of autonomy. [193] Another eight political parties , have representatives in the NPC and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). [194] China supports the Leninist principle of ” democratic centralism “, [195] but critics describe the elected National People’s Congress as a ” rubber stamp ” body. [196]
Government
Main article: Government of China
Xi Jinping
General Secretary
and President
Li Keqiang
Premier
The President is the titular head of state , elected by the National People’s Congress . The Premier is the head of government , presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. The incumbent president is Xi Jinping , who is also the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission , making him China’s paramount leader . The incumbent premier is Li Keqiang , who is also a senior member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee , China’s de facto top decision-making body. [197] [127]
There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels. [198] [199] However, the party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins by default most of the time. Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption. [200] [201] Nonetheless, the level of public support for the government and its management of the nation is high, with 80–95% of Chinese citizens expressing satisfaction with the central government, according to a 2011 survey. [202]
Administrative divisions
Main articles: Administrative divisions of China , Districts of Hong Kong , and Municipalities of Macau
The People’s Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , each with a designated minority group; four municipalities ; and two special administrative regions (SARs) which enjoy a degree of political autonomy. These 31 provincial-level divisions can be collectively referred to as ” mainland China “, a term which usually excludes two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau . Geographically, all 31 provincial divisions can be grouped into six regions, including North China , Northeast China , East China , South Central China , Southwest China and Northwest China .
China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province , although Taiwan is governed by the Republic of China , which rejects the PRC’s claim. [203] None of the divisions are recognized by the ROC government, which claims the entirety of the PRC’s territory.
Provinces ( 省 )
Claimed Province
Anhui (安徽省)
Fujian (福建省)
Gansu (甘肃省)
Guangdong (广东省)
Guizhou (贵州省)
Hainan (海南省)
Hebei (河北省)
Heilongjiang (黑龙江省)
Henan (河南省)
Hubei (湖北省)
Hunan (湖南省)
Jiangsu (江苏省)
Jiangxi (江西省)
Jilin (吉林省)
Liaoning (辽宁省)
Qinghai (青海省)
Shaanxi (陕西省)
Shandong (山东省)
Shanxi (山西省)
Sichuan (四川省)
Yunnan (云南省)
Zhejiang (浙江省)
Taiwan (台湾省)
governed by R.O.China
Autonomous regions ( 自治区 )
Municipalities ( 直辖市 )
Special administrative regions ( 特别行政区 )
Guangxi (广西壮族自治区)
Inner Mongolia / Nei Menggu (内蒙古自治区)
Ningxia (宁夏回族自治区)
Xinjiang (新疆维吾尔自治区)
Tibet / Xizang (西藏自治区)
Beijing (北京市)
Chongqing (重庆市)
Shanghai (上海市)
Tianjin (天津市)
Hong Kong / Xianggang (香港特别行政区)
Macau / Aomen (澳门特别行政区)
Foreign relations
Main article: Foreign relations of China
Chinese President Xi Jinping and G20 leaders from around the world
The PRC has diplomatic relations with 175 countries and maintains embassies in 162 . Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition . In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council . [204] China was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement , and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries . [205] Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the group’s third official summit at Sanya , Hainan in April 2011. [206]
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
Members Observers Dialogue partners Observer applicants Disputed territories
Under its interpretation of the One-China policy , Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China. Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, [207] especially in the matter of armament sales. [208]
Diplomatic relations of China
Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai ‘s Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence , and is also driven by the concept of “harmony without uniformity”, which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences. [209] This policy may have led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or repressive by Western nations, such as Zimbabwe , North Korea and Iran . [210] China has a close economic and military relationship with Russia, [211] and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council. [212] [213] [214]
Trade relations
In recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours. China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2001. In 2004, it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues. [215] The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three , India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. China is also a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), along with Russia and the Central Asian republics.
China has had a long and complex trade relationship with the United States. In 2000, the United States Congress approved “permanent normal trade relations” (PNTR) with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries. [216] China has a significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market. [217] In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage. [218] [219] [220]
Since the turn of the century, China has followed a policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation; [221] [222] [223] in 2012, Sino-African trade totalled over US$160 billion. [224] China maintains healthy and highly diversified trade links with the European Union. China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina . [225] [226]
On 21 May 2014, China and Russia signed a $400 billion gas deal . Starting 2019, Russia plans to provide natural gas to China for the next 30 years.
Territorial disputes
Main article: Foreign relations of China § International territorial disputes
See also: List of wars involving the People’s Republic of China and Cross-Strait relations
Map depicting territorial disputes between the PRC and neighbouring states. For a larger map, see here .
Ever since its establishment after the second Chinese Civil War , the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory. It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province , Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province . These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relations , with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles. [227]
In addition to Taiwan, China is also involved in other international territorial disputes. Since the 1990s, China has been involved in negotiations to resolve its disputed land borders, including a disputed border with India and an undefined border with Bhutan . China is additionally involved in multilateral disputes over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal . [228] [229] On 21 May 2014 Xi Jinping , speaking at a conference in Shanghai, pledged to settle China’s territorial disputes peacefully. “China stays committed to seeking peaceful settlement of disputes with other countries over territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests”, he said. [230]
Emerging superpower status
China is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower , with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play a prominent global role in the 21st century. [231] [232] Others, however, warn that economic bubbles and demographic imbalances could slow or even halt China’s growth as the century progresses. [233] [234] Some authors also question the definition of “superpower”, arguing that China’s large economy alone would not qualify it as a superpower, and noting that it lacks the military power and cultural influence of the United States. [235]
Sociopolitical issues, human rights and reform
See also: Human rights in China , Hukou system , Social welfare in China , Elections in China , Censorship in China , and Feminism in China
March in memory of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo who died of organ failure while in government custody in 2017
The Chinese democracy movement , social activists, and some members of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform. While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China states that the “fundamental rights” of citizens include freedom of speech , freedom of the press , the right to a fair trial , freedom of religion , universal suffrage , and property rights . However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state. [236] [237] Although some criticisms of government policies and the ruling Communist Party are tolerated, censorship of political speech and information, most notably on the Internet, [238] [239] are routinely used to prevent collective action. [240] In 2005, Reporters Without Borders ranked China 159th out of 167 states in its Annual World Press Freedom Index, indicating a very low level of press freedom. [241] In 2014, China ranked 175th out of 180 countries. [242]
Rural migrants to China’s cities often find themselves treated as second class citizens by the hukou household registration system, which controls access to state benefits . [243] [244] Property rights are often poorly protected, [243] and taxation disproportionately affects poorer citizens. [244] However, a number of rural taxes have been reduced or abolished since the early 2000s, and additional social services provided to rural dwellers. [245] [246]
A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies, and NGOs also routinely criticize China’s human rights record , alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions , [247] forced confessions, torture , restrictions of fundamental rights, [188] [248] and excessive use of the death penalty . [249] [250] The government suppresses popular protests and demonstrations that it considers a potential threat to “social stability”, as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .
Candlelight vigil on the 20th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests
Falun Gong was first taught publicly in 1992. In 1999, when there were 70 million practitioners, [251] the persecution of Falun Gong began, resulting in mass arrests, extralegal detention, and reports of torture and deaths in custody. [252] [253] The Chinese state is regularly accused of large-scale repression and human rights abuses in Tibet and Xinjiang , including violent police crackdowns and religious suppression . [254] [255] At least 120,000 members of China’s Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in mass detention camps , termed ” reeducation camps “, aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs. [256] In January 2019 the United Nations asked for direct access to the detention camps after a panel said it had received “credible reports” that 1.1 million Uighurs, Kazakhs, Hui and other ethnic minorities had been detained in the Xinjiang re-education camps . [257] The state has even sought to control offshore reporting of tensions in Xinjiang, intimidating foreign-based reporters by detaining their family members. [258]
The Chinese government has responded to foreign criticism by arguing that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights, and that the notion of human rights should take into account a country’s present level of economic development . [259] It emphasizes the rise in the Chinese standard of living , literacy rate , and average life expectancy since the 1970s, as well as improvements in workplace safety and efforts to combat natural disasters such as the perennial Yangtze River floods. [259] [260] [261] Furthermore, some Chinese politicians have spoken out in support of democratization, although others remain more conservative . [262] Some major reform efforts have been conducted. For instance, in November 2013 the government announced plans to relax the one-child policy and abolish the much-criticized re-education through labour program, [136] although human rights groups note that reforms to the latter have been largely cosmetic. [252] During the 2000s and early 2010s, the Chinese government was increasingly tolerant of NGOs that offer practical, efficient solutions to social problems, but such “third sector” activity remained heavily regulated. [263] [264]
The Global Slavery Index estimated that in 2016 more than 3.8 million people were living in “conditions of modern slavery “, or 0.25% of the population, including victims of human trafficking, forced labor, forced marriage, child labor, and state-imposed forced labor. All except the last category are illegal. The state-imposed forced system was formally abolished in 2013 but it is not clear the extent to which its various practices have stopped. [265] The Chinese penal system includes labor prison factories, detention centers, and re-education camps, which fall under the heading Laogai (“reform through labor”). The Laogai Research Foundation in the United States estimated that there were over a thousand slave labour prisons and camps, known collectively as the Laogai. [266] Prisoners are not paid at all, and need their families to send money to them. Prisoners who refuse to work are beaten, and some are beaten to death. Many of the prisoners are political or religious dissidents, and some are recognized internationally as prisoners of conscience. A Chinese leader said that they want to see two products coming out of the prisons: the man who has been reformed, and the product made by the man. Harry Wu , himself a former prisoner of the Laogai, filmed undercover footage of the Laogai, and was charged with stealing state secrets. For this, Harry Wu was sentenced to 15 years in prison, but only served 66 days before being deported to the United States. [267] [268] [269]
In 2019 a world-first study called for the mass retraction of more than 400 scientific papers on organ transplantation , because of fears the organs were obtained unethically from Chinese prisoners. The study was published in the medical journal BMJ Open. A report published in 2016 found a large discrepancy between official transplant figures from the Chinese government and the number of transplants reported by hospitals. While the government says 10,000 transplants occur each year, hospital data shows between 60,000 to 100,000 organs are transplanted each year. The report provided evidence that this gap is being made up by executed prisoners of conscience. [270]
Military
Main articles: Military history of China before 1911 and People’s Liberation Army
Chengdu Fighter J-10 produced by the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) for the People’s Liberation Army Air Force
With 2.3 million active troops, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is the largest standing military force in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission (CMC). [271] China has the second-biggest military reserve force, only behind North Korea . The PLA consists of the Ground Force (PLAGF), the Navy (PLAN), the Air Force (PLAAF), and the People’s Liberation Army Rocket Force (PLARF). According to the Chinese government, China’s military budget for 2017 totalled US$151.5 billion, constituting the world’s second-largest military budget , although the military expenditures-GDP ratio with 1,3% of GDP is below world average. [26] However, many authorities – including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense – argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget. [26] [272]
Aircraft carrier Liaoning a Type 001 aircraft carrier and the first aircraft carrier commissioned into the People’s Liberation Army Navy Surface Force
As a recognized nuclear weapons state, China is considered both a major regional military power and a potential military superpower . [273] According to a 2013 report by the US Department of Defense , China fields between 50 and 75 nuclear ICBMs , along with a number of SRBMs . [25] However, compared with the other four UN Security Council Permanent Members, China has relatively limited power projection capabilities. [274] To offset this, it has developed numerous power projection assets since the early 2000s – its first aircraft carrier entered service in 2012, [275] [276] [277] and it maintains a substantial fleet of submarines , including several nuclear-powered attack and ballistic missile submarines. [278] China has furthermore established a network of foreign military relationships along critical sea lanes . [279]
A PLA air force Chengdu J-20 stealth fighter aircraft
China has made significant progress in modernising its air force in recent decades, purchasing Russian fighter jets such as the Sukhoi Su-30 , and also manufacturing its own modern fighters, most notably the Chengdu J-10 , J-20 and the Shenyang J-11 , J-15 , J-16 , and J-31 . [275] [280] China is furthermore engaged in developing an indigenous stealth aircraft and numerous combat drones . [281] [282] [283] Air and Sea denial weaponry advances have increased the regional threat from the perspective of Japan as well as Washington. [284] [285] China has also updated its ground forces, replacing its ageing Soviet -derived tank inventory with numerous variants of the modern Type 99 tank , and upgrading its battlefield C3I and C4I systems to enhance its network-centric warfare capabilities. [286] In addition, China has developed or acquired numerous advanced missile systems, [287] [288] including anti-satellite missiles , [289] cruise missiles [290] and submarine-launched nuclear ICBMs. [291] According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute ‘s data, China became the world’s third largest exporter of major arms in 2010–14, an increase of 143 percent from the period 2005–09. [292] Chinese officials stated that spending on the military will rise to U.S. $173B in 2018. fox
In August 2018, China tested its first hypersonic flight . The China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA) claims to have successfully conducted the test with the aircraft Starry Sky-2 that touched a speed of Mach 6 – which is six times the speed of sound. [293]
Economy
Main articles: Economy of China , Agriculture in China , and List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP
China and other major developing economies by GDP per capita at purchasing-power parity , 1990–2013. The rapid economic growth of China (blue) is readily apparent. [294]
China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. [295] [296] Since economic reforms began in 1978, China has developed into a highly diversified economy and one of the most consequential players in international trade. Major sectors of competitive strength include manufacturing, retail, mining, steel, textiles, automobiles, energy generation, green energy, banking, electronics, telecommunications, real estate, e-commerce, and tourism. In 2018, China had 9 out of the Top 20 most valuable Internet companies in the world. [297] In 2019, the Chinese retail market is expected to overtake that of the US and become #1 in the world. [298] China leads the world in e-commerce, accounting for 40% of the global market share. [299] China is the leader in electric vehicles, manufacturing and buying half of all the plug-in electric cars (BEV and PHEV) in the world in 2018. [300] China had 174 GW of installed solar capacity by the end of 2018, which amounts to more than 40% of the global capacity. [301] [302] As of 2018, China had the world’s second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totaling approximately US$13.5 trillion (90 trillion Yuan). [303] In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP, China’s economy has been the largest in the world since 2014, according to the World Bank. [304] As of 2018, China was second in the world in total number of billionaires and millionaires — there were 338 Chinese billionaires [305] and 3.5 million millionaires. [306] However, it ranks behind over 70 countries (out of around 180) in per capita economic output, making it a middle income country. [304] Additionally, its development is highly uneven. Its major cities and coastal areas are far more prosperous compared to rural and interior regions. [307] China brought more people out of extreme poverty than any other country in history [308] — between 1978 and 2018, China reduced extreme poverty by 800 million, and reduced the extreme poverty rate — per international standard, it refers to an income of less than $1.90/day — from 88% in 1981 to 1.85% by 2013. [309] According to the World Bank, the number of Chinese in extreme poverty fell from 756 million to 25 million between 1990 and 2013. [310] China’s own national poverty standards are higher and thus the national poverty rates were 3.1% in 2017 [311] and 1% in 2018. [312]
Shanghai World Financial Center , Jin Mao Tower and Shanghai Tower, Lujiazui
Economic history and growth
Main article: Economic history of China (1949–present)
From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the People’s Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy . Following Mao’s death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule. Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs). Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses. Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership, [313] and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism . [314] [315] The state still dominates in strategic “pillar” sectors such as energy production and heavy industries , but private enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million private businesses recorded in 2008. [316] [317] [318] [319] In 2018, private enterprises in China accounted for 60% of GDP, 80% of urban employment and 90% of new jobs. [320]
Headquarters of Alibaba Group in Hangzhou
In 2015, China’s Middle Class became the largest in the world. [321] Since economic liberalization began in 1978, China has been among the world’s fastest-growing economies, [322] relying largely on investment- and export-led growth. [323] [324] [325] According to the IMF, China’s annual average GDP growth between 2001 and 2010 was 10.5%. In the years immediately following the financial crisis of 2007, China’s economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries’ growth combined. [326] According to the Global Growth Generators index announced by Citigroup in February 2011, China has a very high 3G growth rating. [327] Its high productivity, low labor costs and relatively good infrastructure have made it a global leader in manufacturing. China ranks #1 in the production of steel, aluminum and automobiles — China’s global market shares are 50% in steel [328] , 50% in aluminum [329] and 30% in automobile manufacturing. [330] China has also been increasingly turning to automation, becoming the world’s largest market for industrial robots in 2013. Between 2010 and 2015, China installed 90,000 industrial robots, or one-third of the world’s total. [331] In 2017, China bought 36% of all the new industrial robots in the world. [332] China’s plan is to also domestically design and manufacture 100,000 industrial robots by 2020. [333] However, the Chinese economy is highly energy-intensive and inefficient; [334] China became the world’s largest energy consumer in 2010, [335] relies on coal to supply over 70% of its energy needs, and surpassed the US to become the world’s largest oil importer in 2013. [336] [337] In the last decade, China has become #1 in the world in terms of installed solar power capacity, hydro-power and wind power. According to the World Economic Forum , China will account for 40% of the global renewable energy by 2022. [338] In addition, official GDP figures are seen as unreliable and there have been several well-publicized cases of data manipulation. [339] [340] [341] In the early 2010s, China’s economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international demand for Chinese exports and fragility in the global economy. [342] [343] [344] China’s GDP was smaller than Germany’s in 2007; however, by 2017, China’s $12.2 trillion-economy became larger than those of Germany, UK, France and Italy combined [345] . In 2018, the IMF reiterated its forecast that China will overtake the US in terms of nominal GDP by the year 2030. [346] Economists also expect China’s middle class to expand to 600 million people by 2025. [347]
The Shanghai Stock Exchange building in Shanghai ‘s Lujiazui financial district. Shanghai has the 25th-largest city GDP in the world, totalling US$304 billion in 2011. [348]
Sightseeing boats ply the river in Shanghai; China has a wide range of natural and historical sights that generate tourist revenue
China is the world’s largest e-commerce market, amounting to 42% of the global market by 2016. [349] China’s e-commerce market had online sales of more than $1 trillion in 2018, according to PWC . [350] China’s e-commerce industry took off in 2009, marked by the growth of internet giants Tencent Alibaba – purveyors of products such as WeChat and Tmall that have become ubiquitous in contemporary Chinese life. Tencent’s WeChat Pay and Alibaba’s Ali Pay have helped China become a world leader in mobile payments, which amounted to about $30 trillion in China in 2017. [351] China is also second only to the United States in venture capital activity and is home to a large number of unicorn startup companies. [352] [353] In 2018, China attracted $105 billion of venture capital investments, amounting to 38% of global VC investments that year. [354] In late 2018, the world’s most valuable startup was ByteDance, a Chinese company [355] ; and the two most valuable AI (Artificial Intelligence) startups in the world were SenseTime and Face++, both from China. [356] In 2018, China created 97 “unicorns” – startups that are worth more than $1 billion – which amounted to 1 unicorn every 3.8 days. [357] Chinese smartphone brands — Huawei, Xiaomi, Oppo, Vivo, OnePlus etc. — have captured more than 40% of the global market. [358] [359] In 2018, Huawei became the largest telecom infrastructure provider and also took the #2 spot from Apple as a smartphone vendor. [360] Tourism is a major contributor to the economy. In 2017, this sector contributed about CNY 8.77 trillion (US$1.35 trillion), 11.04% of the GDP, and contributed direct and indirect employment of up to 28.25 million people. There were 139.48 million inbound trips and five billion domestic trips. [361] [362]
China is now #1 in the number of skyscrapers (buildings taller than 200m), accounting for about 50% of world’s total. [363] In four years — 2015 through 2018 — China built 310 skyscrapers, while the corresponding number for the US was 33. [364] [365] [366] [367]
China in the global economy
Share of world GDP (PPP) [368]
Year
Share
1980
2.32%
1990
4.11%
2000
7.40%
2010
13.89%
2018
18.72%
China is a member of the WTO and is the world’s largest trading power, with a total international trade value of US$3.87 trillion in 2012. [24] Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$2.85 trillion by the end of 2010, an increase of 18.7% over the previous year, making its reserves by far the world’s largest. [369] [370] In 2012, China was the world’s largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting $253 billion. [371] In 2014, China’s foreign exchange remittances were $US64 billion making it the second largest recipient of remittances in the world. [372] China also invests abroad, with a total outward FDI of $62.4 billion in 2012, [371] and a number of major takeovers of foreign firms by Chinese companies. [373] China is a major owner of US public debt , holding trillions of dollars worth of U.S. Treasury bonds . [374] [375] China’s undervalued exchange rate has caused friction with other major economies, [219] [376] [377] and it has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods. [378] [379]
Major economies by nominal GDP (2017) [380]
China ranks 28th out of 140 countries in the Global Competitiveness Index , above many advanced economies and making it by far the most competitive major emerging economy. This is largely owing to its strength in infrastructure and wide adoption of communication and information technology. However, it lags behind advanced economies in labour market efficiency, institutional strength, and openness of market competition, especially for foreign players attempting to enter the domestic market. [381] In 2018, Fortune’ s Global 500 list of the world’s largest corporations included 120 Chinese companies . [382] Many of the largest public companies in the world were Chinese, including the world’s largest bank by total assets , the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China . [383]
Following the 2007-8 financial crisis, Chinese authorities sought to actively wean off of its dependence on the U.S. Dollar as a result of perceived weaknesses of the international monetary system. [384] To achieve those ends, China took a series of actions to further the internationalization of the Renminbi . In 2008, China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB liquidity. [385] [386] This was followed with bilateral agreements to settle trades directly in renminbi with Russia, [387] Japan , [388] Australia , [389] Singapore , [390] the United Kingdom , [391] and Canada . [392] As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currency in the world, an emerging international reserve currency , [393] and a component of the IMF’s special drawing rights ; however, partly due to capital controls that make the renminbi fall short of being a fully convertible currency, it remains far behind the Euro, Dollar and Japanese Yen in international trade volumes. [394]
Class and income inequality
See also: Income inequality in China
China’s middle-class population (if defined as those with annual income of between US$10,000 and US$60,000) had reached more than 300 million by 2012. [395] Wages in China have grown exponentially in the last 40 years — real wages grew seven-fold from 1978 to 2007. [396] By 2018, median wages in Chinese cities such as Shanghai were about the same as or higher than the wages in Eastern European countries. [397] More than 75 percent of China’s urban consumers are expected to earn between 60.000 and 229.000 RMB per year by 2022. [398] China has the world’s second-highest number of billionaires, with nearly 400 as of 2018, increasing at the rate of roughly two per week. [399] [400] China’s domestic retail market was worth over 20 trillion yuan (US$3.2 trillion) in 2012 [401] and is growing at over 12% annually as of 2013, [402] while the country’s luxury goods market has expanded immensely, with 27.5% of the global share. [403] However, in recent years, China’s rapid economic growth has contributed to severe consumer inflation, [404] [405] leading to increased government regulation. [406] China has a high level of economic inequality, [407] which has increased in the past few decades. [408] In 2012, China’s official Gini coefficient was 0.474. [409] [410] A study conducted by Southwestern University of Finance and Economics showed that China’s Gini coefficient actually had reached 0.61 in 2012, and top 1% Chinese held more than 25% of China’s wealth. [411] In comparison, the Top 1% of Americans held 40% of the wealth. [412] [413]
Science and technology
Main articles: Science and technology in China , Chinese space program , List of Chinese discoveries , List of Chinese inventions , and History of science and technology in China
Historical
Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 ce
China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty . Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions , such as papermaking , printing , the compass , and gunpowder (the Four Great Inventions ), became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later to Europe. Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers . [414] [415] By the 17th century, Europe and the Western world surpassed China in scientific and technological advancement. [416] The causes of this early modern Great Divergence continue to be debated by scholars to this day. [417]
After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement . After the Communists came to power in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union , in which scientific research was part of central planning. [418] After Mao’s death in 1976, science and technology was established as one of the Four Modernizations , [419] and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed. [420]
Modern era
Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research [421] and is quickly catching up with the US in R&D spending. [422] In 2017, China spent $279 billion on scientific research and development. [423] According to OECD , China spent 2.11% of its GDP on Research and Development (R&D) in 2016. [424] Science and technology are seen as vital for achieving China’s economic and political goals, and are held as a source of national pride to a degree sometimes described as “techno-nationalism”. [425] Nonetheless, China’s investment in basic and applied scientific research remains behind that of leading technological powers such as the United States and Japan. [421] [426] According to the US National Science Board , China had, for the first time, more science and engineering publications than the US, in 2016. [427] Also, in 2016, China spent $409 billion (by PPP) on Research and Development. [428] In 2018, China is estimated to have spent $475 billion (by PPP), second only to the USA. [429] In 2017, China was #2 in international patents application, behind the US but ahead of Japan. [430] Chinese tech companies Huawei and ZTE were the top 2 filers of international patents in 2017. [431] [432] Chinese-born scientists have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Physiology or Medicine once respectively, though most of these scientists conducted their Nobel-winning research in western nations. [s]
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center , one of the first Chinese spaceport
China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering ; in 2009, China graduated over 10,000 Ph.D. engineers, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country. [438] In 2016, there were 4.7 million STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) graduates in China, which was more than eight times the corresponding number for the US. [439] China also became the world’s largest publisher of scientific papers, by 2016. [440] Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing, [441] [442] [443] and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world’s most powerful . [444] [445] China is also expanding its use of industrial robots ; from 2008 to 2011, the installation of multi-role robots in Chinese factories rose by 136 percent. [446]
The Chinese space program is one of the world’s most active, and is a major source of national pride. [447] [448] In 2018, China successfully launched more satellites (35) than any other country, including the USA (30). [449] In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I , becoming the fifth country to do so independently. [450] In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei ‘s spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5 ; as of 2015, ten Chinese nationals have journeyed into space, including two women. In 2011, China’s first space station module, Tiangong-1 , was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large manned station by the early 2020s. [451] In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang’e 3 lander and Yutu rover onto the lunar surface; China plans to collect lunar soil samples by 2017. [452] In 2016, China’s 2nd space station module, Tiangong-2 , was launched from Jiuquan aboard a Long March 2F rocket on 15 September 2016. Then Shenzhou 11 successfully docked with Tiangong-2 on 19 October 2016. In 2019, China became the first country to land a probe — Chang’e 4 — on the far side of the moon.
Infrastructure
A 2016 report by McKinsey consulting group, revealed that China has been annually spending more on infrastructure than North America and Western Europe combined. [453] [454]
Telecommunications
Main article: Telecommunications in China
Internet penetration rates in East Asian and Chinese Regions 1995-2012
China is the largest telecom market in the world and currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1.5 billion subscribers, as of 2018. [455] It also has the world’s largest number of internet and broadband users , with over 800 million Internet users as of 2018 — equivalent to around 60% of its population — and almost all of them being mobile as well. [456] Almost entire China’s population had access to 4G network by 2017. [457] By 2018, China had more than 1 billion 4G users, accounting for 40% of world’s total. [458] [459] In terms of unique mobile subscribers as percentage of population, China came in at 82%, placing the country #3 in the world (as of 2018). [460] As of early 2019, the average mobile connection speed in China was 30 Mbit/s (megabits per second) [461] , which is 9% slower than the US. [462] As for fixed broadband in China, the average download speed was 76 Mbit/s [463] ; and 60% of fixed broadband Chinese users (or 200 million Chinese households) were able to access the Internet at 100 Mbit/s or higher (as of 2018). [464] [465] [466] China is making rapid progress in 1 Gbit/s (1000 Mbit/s) internet, and 42% of Chinese homes are expected to have 1 Gbit/s broadband link by 2023. [467] In 2018, China had 378 million fixed broadband users and 87% of them were fiber-optic users, making China #1 in the world in deployment of fiber-optic cables for broadband. [468] By the end of 2017, China had 29 million kilometers of fiber-optic cable. [469] In 2019, China is expected to account for 24% of the world’s spending on IoT or internet-connected devices. [470] Since 2011 China has been the nation with the most installed telecommunication bandwidth in the world. By 2014, China hosted more than twice as much national bandwidth potential than the U.S., the historical leader in terms of installed telecommunication bandwidth (China: 29% versus US:13% of the global total). [471] China is making rapid advances in 5G — by late 2018, China had started large-scale and commercial 5G trials. [472] In early 2019, Shanghai railway station introduced 5G WiFi that has an internet speed of 1,200 Mbit/s. [473] [474]
China Mobile , China Unicom and China Telecom , are the three large providers of mobile and internet in China. China Telecom alone served more than 145 million broadband subscribers and 300 million mobile users; China Unicom had about 300 million subscribers; and China Mobile, the biggest of them all, had 925 million users, as of 2018. [475] [476] [477] Combined, the three operators had over 3.4 million 4G base-stations in China. [468] Several Chinese telecommunications companies, most notably Huawei and ZTE , have been accused of spying for the Chinese military. [478] British intelligence — GCHQ and NCSC — said in 2019 that there have been no evidence of malicious activity or spying by Huawei. [479] [480]
China is developing its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou , which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012 [481] and it started providing global services by the end of 2018. [482] [483] Now China belongs to the elite group of three countries — US and Russia being the other two members — that provide global satellite navigation.
Transport
Main article: Transport in China
The Duge Bridge is the highest bridge in the world .
Since the late 1990s, China’s national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways . In 2018, China’s highways had reached a total length of 142,500 km (88,500 mi), making it the longest highway system in the world [484] ; and China’s railways reached a total length of 127,000 km by 2017. [485] By the end of 2018, China’s high-speed railway network reached a length of 29,000 km, representing more than 60% of the world’s total. [486] In 1991, there were only six bridges across the main stretch of the Yangtze River, which bisects the country into northern and southern halves. By October 2014, there were 81 such bridges and tunnels . China has the world’s largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production . Sales of passenger cars in 2016 exceeded 24 million. [487] A side-effect of the rapid growth of China’s road network has been a significant rise in traffic accidents, [488] with poorly enforced traffic laws cited as a possible cause—in 2011 alone, around 62,000 Chinese died in road accidents. [489] In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles – as of 2012, there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China. [490]
Terminal 3 of Beijing Capital International Airport is the 2nd-largest airport terminal in the world.
China’s railways , which are state-owned , are among the busiest in the world , handling a quarter of the world’s rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world’s tracks in 2006. [491] [492] as of 2017, the country had 127,000 km (78,914 mi) of railways, the second longest network in the world . [493] [494] The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world’s largest annual human migration takes place. [492] In 2013, Chinese railways delivered 2.106 billion passenger trips, generating 1,059.56 billion passenger-kilometers and carried 3.967 billion tons of freight, generating 2,917.4 billion cargo tons-kilometers. [493]
China’s high-speed rail (HSR) system started construction in the early 2000s. By the end of 2018, high speed rail in China had over 29,000 kilometers (18,020 miles) of dedicated lines alone, a length that exceeds rest of the world’s high-speed rail tracks combined, making it the longest HSR network in the world . [495] With an annual ridership of over 1.1 billion passengers in 2015 it is the world’s busiest. [496] The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway , the single longest HSR line in the world, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway , which has three of longest railroad bridges in the world . [497] The HSR track network is set to reach approximately 16,000 km (9,900 mi) by 2020. [498] The Shanghai Maglev Train , which reaches 431 km/h (268 mph), is the fastest commercial train service in the world. [499]
The fastest train service measured by peak operational speed is the Shanghai Maglev Train which can reach 431 km/h (268 mph).
Since 2000, the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated. As of January 2016, 26 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation and 39 more have metro systems approved [500] with a dozen more to join them by 2020. [501] The Shanghai Metro , Beijing Subway , Guangzhou Metro , Hong Kong MTR and Shenzhen Metro are among the longest and busiest in the world.
The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge is the longest sea crossing and the longest fixed link on earth.
There were approximately 229 airports in 2017, with around 240 planned by 2020. More than two-thirds of the airports under construction worldwide in 2013 were in China, [502] and Boeing expects that China’s fleet of active commercial aircraft in China will grow from 1,910 in 2011 to 5,980 in 2031. [502] In just five years — from 2013 to 2018 — China bought 1000 planes from Boeing. [503] With rapid expansion in civil aviation , the largest airports in China have also joined the ranks of the busiest in the world . In 2018, Beijing’s Capital Airport ranked second in the world by passenger traffic (it was 26th in 2002). Since 2010, the Hong Kong International Airport and Shanghai Pudong International Airport have ranked first and third in air cargo tonnage .
Some 80% of China’s airspace remains restricted for military use , and Chinese airlines made up eight of the 10 worst-performing Asian airlines in terms of delays. [504] China has over 2,000 river and seaports , about 130 of which are open to foreign shipping. In 2017, the Ports of Shanghai , Hong Kong , Shenzhen , Ningbo-Zhoushan , Guangzhou , Qingdao and Tianjin ranked in the Top 10 in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage . [505]
The Port of Shanghai ‘s deep water harbor on Yangshan Island in the Hangzhou Bay is from 2010 the world’s busiest container port .
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in China
Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution . [506] According to data presented by the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2015, about 36% of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation . [507] In June 2010, there were 1,519 sewage treatment plants in China and 18 plants were added each week. [508] The ongoing South–North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water shortage in the north. [509]
Demographics
Main article: Demographics of China
A 2009 population density map of the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the western interior.
Population of China from 1960 to 2017
The national census of 2010 recorded the population of the People’s Republic of China as approximately 1,370,536,875. About 16.60% of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14% were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26% were over 60 years old. [510] The population growth rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46%. [511]
China used to make up much of the world’s poor; now China makes up much of the world’s middle class. [512] Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China’s rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions — 800 million, to be more precise [513] — of its people out of poverty since 1978. By 2013, less than 2% of the Chinese population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.9 per day, down from 88% in 1981. [309] China’s own standards for poverty are higher and still the country is on its way to eradicate national poverty completely by 2019. [514] From 2009-2018, the unemployment rate in China has averaged about 4%. [515]
Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the 1970s, and, in 1979, began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family. Beginning in the mid 1980s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a “1.5”-child policy from the mid-1980s to 2015 (ethnic minorities were also exempt from one child limits). The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December 2013, allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child. [516] In 2016, the one-child policy was replaced in favor of a two-child policy . [517] Data from the 2010 census implies that the total fertility rate may be around 1.4, although due to underreporting of births it may be closer to 1.5–1.6. [518]
According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth [519] or the size of the total population. [520] However, these scholars have been challenged. Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, a number which may reach one billion by 2060 given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction. [521]
The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth. [522] [523] According to the 2010 census, the sex ratio at birth was 118.06 boys for every 100 girls, [524] which is beyond the normal range of around 105 boys for every 100 girls. [525] The 2010 census found that males accounted for 51.27 percent of the total population. [524] However, China’s sex ratio is more balanced than it was in 1953, when males accounted for 51.82 percent of the total population. [524]
Ethnic groups
Main articles: List of ethnic groups in China , Ethnic minorities in China , and Ethnic groups in Chinese history
A trilingual sign in Sibsongbanna , with Tai Lü language on the top
China officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese , who constitute about 91.51% of the total population. [11] The Han Chinese – the world’s largest single ethnic group [526] – outnumber other ethnic groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang . [527] Ethnic minorities account for about 8.49% of the population of China, according to the 2010 census. [11] Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%. [11] The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign nationals living in China. The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), the United States (71,493) and Japan (66,159). [528]
Languages
Main articles: Languages of China and List of endangered languages in China
1990 map of Chinese ethnolinguistic groups
There are as many as 292 living languages in China. [529] The languages most commonly spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which contains Mandarin (spoken by 70% of the population), [530] and other varieties of Chinese language : Yue (including Cantonese and Taishanese ), Wu (including Shanghainese and Suzhounese ), Min (including Fuzhounese , Hokkien and Teochew ), Xiang , Gan and Hakka . Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch , including Tibetan , Qiang , Naxi and Yi , are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau . Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang , Thai , Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family , Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien family , and Wa of the Austroasiatic family . Across northeastern and northwestern China , local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu , Mongolian and several Turkic languages : Uyghur , Kazakh , Kyrgyz , Salar and Western Yugur . Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea . Sarikoli , the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang , is an Indo-European language . Taiwanese aborigines , including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages . [531]
Standard Mandarin , a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect , is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds. [532]
Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing. In 1956, the government introduced simplified characters , which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system . Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script . Uyghur is most commonly written in Persian alphabet based Uyghur Arabic alphabet . The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet . Zhuang uses both an official Latin alphabet script and a traditional Chinese character script .
Urbanization
See also: List of cities in China , List of cities in China by population , and Metropolitan regions of China
Map of the ten largest cities in China (2010)
China has urbanized significantly in recent decades. The percent of the country’s population living in urban areas increased from 20% in 1980 to over 55% in 2016. [533] [534] [535] [536] It is estimated that China’s urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the world population. [534] [535] As of 2012, there are more than 262 million migrant workers in China, mostly rural migrants seeking work in cities. [537]
China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million, [538] including the seven megacities (cities with a population of over 10 million) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Wuhan. [539] [540] [541] By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants. [534] The figures in the table below are from the 2010 census, [4] and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large ” floating populations ” of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult; [542] the figures below include only long-term residents.
v t e
Largest cities or towns in China
Sixth National Population Census of the People’s Republic of China (2010)
Rank
Name
Province
Pop.
Rank
Name
Province
Pop.
Shanghai
Beijing
1
Shanghai

20,217,700
11
Chengdu
Sichuan
6,316,900
Chongqing
Guangzhou
2
Beijing

16,446,900
12
Nanjing
Jiangsu
6,238,200
3
Chongqing

11,871,200
13
Shenyang
Liaoning
5,718,200
4
Guangzhou
Guangdong
10,641,400
14
Hangzhou
Zhejiang
5,578,300
5
Shenzhen
Guangdong
10,358,400
15
Xi’an
Shaanxi
5,399,300
6
Tianjin

9,562,300
16
Harbin
Heilongjiang
5,178,000
7
Wuhan
Hubei
7,541,500
17
Suzhou
Jiangsu
4,083,900
8
Dongguan
Guandgong
7,271,300
18
Qingdao
Shandong
3,990,900
9
Hong Kong

7,055,071
19
Dalian
Liaoning
3,902,500
10
Foshan
Guangdong
6,771,900
20
Zhengzhou
Henan
3,677,000
Education
Main articles: Education in the People’s Republic of China and List of universities in China
Beijing’s Tsinghua University , one of the top-ranked universities in China [543]
Since 1986, compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school , which together last for nine years. [544] In 2010, about 82.5 percent of students continued their education at a three-year senior secondary school. [545] The Gaokao , China’s national university entrance exam, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher education institutions. In 2010, 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education. [546] This number increased significantly over the last years, reaching a tertiary school enrollment of 48.4 percent in 2016. [547] Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and tertiary level. [548]
In February 2006, the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees. [549] Annual education investment went from less than US$50 billion in 2003 to more than US$250 billion in 2011. [550] However, there remains an inequality in education spending. In 2010, the annual education expenditure per secondary school student in Beijing totalled ¥20,023, while in Guizhou , one of the poorest provinces in China , only totalled ¥3,204. [551] Free compulsory education in China consists of primary school and junior secondary school between the ages of 6 and 15. In 2011, around 81.4% of Chinese have received secondary education. [552] By 2007, there were 396,567 primary schools, 94,116 secondary schools, and 2,236 higher education institutions in China. [553]
As of 2010, 94% of the population over age 15 are literate. [554] In 1949, only 20% of the population could read, compared to 65.5% thirty years later. [555] In 2009, Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the world’s best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils’ scholastic performance. [556] Despite the high results, Chinese education has also faced both native and international criticism for its emphasis on rote memorization and its gap in quality from rural to urban areas. [557]
Health
Main article: Health in China
See also: Pharmaceutical industry in China
Chart showing the rise of China’s Human Development Index from 1970 to 2010
The National Health and Family Planning Commission , together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population. [558] An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterized Chinese health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign , which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases. Diseases such as cholera , typhoid and scarlet fever , which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaig

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Quote: : Thank you … we hadn’t considered that as an option at all.. definitely worth considering. Quote: : Really?
You don’t care for all the museums, music venues, art galleries, cuisine, beaches, sports venues, parks, coastal towns, Mediterranean climate etc?
Not to mention the lack of needles and poop on urine stenched sidewalks.
Just havin’ a laugh…but I’ve spent significant time in both, and find SoCal far more agreeable in this regard.
Especially enjoying a martini as the sun sets over the palm lined sea.
…. “San Francisco” is both a city and, in general parlance, an area – the Bay Area. I lived in SF proper (an area only 7 miles by 7 miles) for over 12 years, and grew tired of the homeless, the fog, the lack of parking, etc, but only after many years of loving the place for it’s culture, food, etc. SF itself has only about 880,000 people – it’s a small place as cities go. The Bay Area (the area surrounding SF Bay – anywhere from Petaluma / Santa Rosa in the north, to Walnut Creek in the east, to San Jose / Palo Alto to the south) is an almost entirely different ball-game (and has a population of about 7m). The weather is closer to So-Cal – just 20 minutes in any direction outside SF has a radically different climate (I used to leave the office in downtown SF with 50-degree fog, arrive in Walnut Creek to 90-degree sunshine). But the biggest difference between the Bay Area and LA is the people. The BA doesn’t have the focus on entertainment that LA has. LA is the entertainment center of the universe – Hollywood, movies, etc. The Bay Area is the tech center of the universe. Basically, at the risk of massive over-generalization, the BA is full of nerds while LA is full of wannabe movie stars. The conversation everywhere is about tech. The billboards are all tech (just noticed this recently, the entire 101 corridor is full of gobbledygook billboards advertising the latest AI development or database company!).
The Bay Area has a lot to offer in many areas, but for the purpose of this post, Iet’s focus on Palo Alto, in Santa Clara County. I worked in Palo Alto for 10 years, and it was a wonderful place. Stanford is the local university, and there a strong influence from the student body and the faculty. This is where Hewlett and Packard got together in a garage and started ‘Silicon Valley’, and where Steve Jobs grew up and lived most of his life. The Google founders live there. It has a fantastic ‘restaurant scene’ on University Avenue. It’s physically beautiful with the coast range as a backdrop. It’s also hellishly expensive, more expensive than LA, but – if you can get a good job it’s great. Looking at the following chart (from https://www.janepoppelreiterrealesta…-demographics/ ), note that Santa Clara county has 34% white, 34% Asian, 27% Hispanic – it’s a hell of a diverse place. And everyone is educated – people come from all over the world to work here, so you have a lot of very well-rounded, well-educated, diverse folks. You see and hear this in the restaurants and businesses as you go about your daily life. As an aside, have you spent any time in Pasadena in LA (county)? It’s my favorite place in LA and has a decent ‘vibe’, and is full of propeller-heads from the various science institutions nearby, such as the Jet Propulsion Labs.
As for your son, and his passion for history, and the lack of history here; this is a harder nut to crack, but – one thing I’ve come to learn is that there is a tremendous amount of history here, but it’s very different and not as visual – so may be less obvious to a child – it’s social history. The population of CA today is almost 40 million. 100 years ago it was 3 million. That’s a lot of change. There’s a fascinating story of ‘recent history’ right there, how did those people get here, why? (UK, by comparison, had a population of 43 million 100 years ago and it’s not much bigger today). The story of how the ‘west’ was developed, with dams being built, farmers being encouraged to move west, the expeditions to find new land, the plight of the native Indians, etc – all in recent times. Civil rights – the story of slaves, the story of voter rights, etc is somewhat unique to the US. Have you visited the Hoover Dam, and explored the social consequences of that massive undertaking? I recently became fascinated by the whole history of how LA got its water – how Mulholland tricked the farmers in the Owens Valley into selling their land, and then built a system to deliver water through a desert and over mountains … maybe not too appealing to a kid but amazing stuff, without any parallel in the UK.
As for ‘bread’ – I do find criticism of bread to be rather silly. Here in the Bay Area we have Acme Bakery, which produces wonderful bread (that goes rock-hard within a day or two of purchase!). And many other bakeries. Are you telling me that your local Whole Foods Market, or Sprouts, or whatever does not sell a decent, fresh, natural baked loaf? I find that hard to believe, but i can assure you such things exist up here, in abundance!
ETA – are all the bakeries listed here no good? https://www.discoverlosangeles.com/e…in-los-angeles and https://la.eater.com/maps/best-bread…es-los-angeles and https://www.latimes.com/food/dailydi…017-story.html ? I don’t suggest for one moment that you are going to find great bread at the local Safeway/Vons or whatever. But if you love bread, surely a trip to one of these noted bakeries is not out of the question?
Good Luck with whatever you choose.

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A very Serious suggestion

This one is likely to be a minefield but MUST be responded to and addressed. I am sure there will be many who agree with me and other SJWs who will vilify me. Here goes:
I have lived and worked in 10 countries over the last 35 years. I am British by nationality , Indian by birth and Live in HK. I travel on work about a third of my time, internationally.
For me in assessing the relevance of a review of a restaurant, it is super important to know the ethnicity of the reviewer. Let’s say I travel to a new country and am craving Indian food. Let’s say I find a restaurant near me which has mixed reviews….it would be hugely relevant to me if the Indians think it’s amazing but Western folks don’t. You can substitute cuisines/ ethnicity/ nationality for whatever you like but you get my drift.
How can TA crack this nuance?
Rajesh

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