Comment on Carrot Okara Muffins by Jen

Comment on Carrot Okara Muffins by Jen

½ cup Raisins Instructions Preheat your oven to 375°F / 175°C. Fill your muffin tray with 12 paper liners or generously grease and flour your tins. Combine wet ingredients in a medium bowl. Sift dry ingredients in a larger mixing bowl. Pour wet ingredients, walnuts and raisins into dry ingredients, mixing until just combined. DO NOT OVER MIX. Spoon the batter into the liners until almost full. Bake for 25 to 30 minutes until lightly brown or until the toothpick test comes out clean. Depending on the wetness of your okara, the baking times might be slightly different. Cool for 10 minutes, take muffins out of tins and place on wire racks to cool completely. If you use paper liners, you must cool the muffins completely or the muffins will stick to the liner. 2.2.6 Shannon Lim-de Rooy
Shannon’s kitchen is her playground and creative outlet, where she loves to experiment with recipes. As a Malaysian, her food influences are mainly Malay, Chinese and Indian cuisine but her curiousity in other culture lead to cross cultural cooking. On her blog JustAsDelish.com, she pursue her mission in creating healthy and delish food.

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Overseas Chinese’ 5 Week Residency at Brickfields Bar in Brockley

Overseas Chinese’ 5 Week Residency at Brickfields Bar in Brockley Overseas Chinese, run by chef Melissa Chi Mae Wong, is holding a 5 week residency at Brickfields Bar in Brockley, from Tuesday 30th April – Thursday 31st May 2019, serving Tuesday to Thursday nights. Expect dishes infuenced by both Chinese and South East Asian cuisine – as shown by the stunning pics on their Instagram . Really looking forward to visiting! “Overseas Chinese” refers to Chinese persons residing in countries other than China. The Chinese people have a long history of migrating overseas. One of the earliest migrations dates back to the Ming dynasty when Zheng He (1371–1435) became the envoy of Ming. He sent people – many of them Cantonese and Hokkien – to explore and trade in the South China Sea and in the Indian Ocean. Many variations of Chinese food can be found globally. The influence and happy accidents when adapting recipes is a testament to the pursuit of using produce available in that specific region. Overseas Chinese Food is influenced by Chinese and South East Asian cuisine – and also, things we simply believe are delicious.” When – Tuesdays – Thursday from 3oth April – 31st May 2019 6pm-10pm

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A 3-Week Sample Itinerary for India

Mumbai: Tours in Mumbai What do you need to know about India? Dress code As a woman visiting India, you should dress appropriately. India is quite more conservative than back home. You need to cover your legs and shoulders. If you don’t, expect stares and unwanted attention, maybe even theft. It’s just a matter of being respectful of India’s religion and cultures while you’re there, even though you may not agree with everything. Expect a lot of people! In one of the most populated countries of the world, it’s pretty hard to avoid the crowds. I am not sure you can totally prepare yourself for India if you’re coming from a sparsely populated country such as Australia. Our entire population is only the same as the city of New Delhi! Arriving into a city as populated as New Delhi sure was a shock. As we drove from the airport to our hotel in Delhi, I could barely believe the traffic, all those cars and people everywhere. This is a little overwhelming at first and it does take time to get used to it. For someone like me who hates crowds, it was certainly a challenge. But in the end, there is nothing you can do about it but accept it and try and adapt to it. Trying to get a photo with no-one on it is pretty much impossible! You are going to get some serious culture shock! Culture shock will set in as soon as the heat hits you on leaving the airport! The smog, the crowds, the noise, the smells, the rubbish, the beggars, the spicy food, the cows on the road, the crazy things you’ll see. India is not what you are used to if you come from a western country. Everything is very different but we found it fascinating. Be prepared for the annoying touts India was by far the worst country for touts that we’ve been to. They are everywhere, they won’t leave you alone and some of them can be annoyingly aggressive. You can’t actually trust anyone because most of the time if someone tries to help you, they’ll want something in return. Most of the time they’ll want you to visit their shop or buy some souvenirs. Some touts will pretend to be ticket inspectors and then quickly change into uninvited tour guides, following you around and then expecting a tip. Just be firm, ignore them and don’t get upset about it; it’s not worth it. What about the Visa? To enter India, you must apply for a visa which can be done online. Unfortunately, the visa is very expensive, costing US$80 for 60 days with 2 allowed entries. It’s the most expensive we’ve ever applied for. We knew that India would be one of a kind when we decided to apply for the visa. We’ve applied for many visas online before but this one was the lengthiest of all. We had to fill in so many questions, such as the cities where our parents were born, all the cities we were visiting and even if we had a tattoo! The list of all the country we visited in the last 10 years was a tough one to answer. It didn’t help when half an hour into filling in the visa form the website crashed and Simon had to start all over again! You can apply for your visa here and pay online by credit card. Once your visa has been granted, you need to print the approval letter and take it with you at the airport. You will be asked for it and a passport sized photo when you enter. India? With India being such a huge country, there are many ways to get around it. You can hire a driver, take a bus, train or fly between cities. We hired a driver for Rajasthan which was fairly cheaply priced and it made everything very easy. We didn’t have to worry about anything other than being ready to leave when our driver arrived. For longer distances, there are many trains and flights that you can take. We chose flying because I’d heard horror stories about overnight trains and I wasn’t keen to take one. Now for the unexpected things about India that surprised us The wildlife As I mentioned earlier, our visit to Ranthambore National Park was pretty much the highlight of our Indian trip. Apart from the main attraction, the Bengal Tigers, Ranthambore has a host of other wildlife such as leopards, eagles and various types of antelope. But there is plenty of wildlife elsewhere in India. We commonly saw eagles flying overhead and of course, there are plenty of cheeky monkeys to be found around temples. The Street Art We certainly never expected street art to be one of the things we’d remember India for but it was. We saw great examples of street art everywhere from the ghats of Varanasi to the underpasses of New Delhi. The food While we expected to try some great food while in India, didn’t expect to be able to eat it the entire holiday and for every meal. While we love eating Indian food back home, we always feel bloated at the end of a takeaway meal. So we figured that by halfway through our trip we’d be tired of feeling bloated and ready for different cuisine. But it turned out that we never tired of eating Indian food. We’re not quite sure why but we never had that same bloated feeling with the food we ate there. We suspect that it’s partly because we ate a lot of vegetarian dishes and perhaps because the portion sizes are a bit smaller. Whatever it was, it meant we got to enjoy a lot of amazing food while we were there. The transactional nature of interactions I guess we should have expected that in a country of a billion people that some things would feel a bit impersonal. Somehow though we hadn’t expected it to be that much more so than in other Asian countries such as Thailand or Vietnam. In India, it was hard to escape the feeling that whenever someone did something for you there it was because they expected something in return. If someone came up to you on the street and asked how you were, it was guaranteed that they were starting a conversation just to get you into their shop. It’s not that we’d never experienced this elsewhere but in India, it was a lot more pronounced. That being said, it’s something you get used to very quickly and it’s important to not take it personally. India has a lot of people who are trying to climb out of poverty and better themselves and you can hardly blame them for trying to make money out of tourists. We didn’t get sick One of the reasons that we’d held off from visiting India for so long was that we were sure that one of us (well actually Simon!) was going to get really sick there. But as luck would have it, neither of us fell ill during the entire trip. It was a small miracle, especially since it’s almost guaranteed that Simon will get some form of food poisoning on holiday in Asia. Of course, within a week of arriving in Thailand, he was sick for several days so our luck didn’t last for that long! The Cows are Everywhere We knew that cows are sacred in India and they are free to roam around the streets but we didn’t fully appreciate what that meant. For example, you’ll see cows happily lying in the middle of busy roads or walking through the narrow laneways of Udaipur, oblivious to the goings on around them. Cows in India seem very chilled out and they provide a very nice counterbalance to all of the daily noise and commotion. However, we’re not sure that walking the streets of a polluted city is the greatest thing for them health wise and it was rather sad to see them grazing on top of piles of rubbish. Hopefully, that will change in the future as India makes strides in cleaning up its pollution and garbage problem.
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A Visit to Agra, The Home of the Taj Mahal

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England

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The Kingdom of England was a separate state until May 1, 1707, when the Acts of Union resulted in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. Geography A satellite image showing the geography of England.
The mainland territory of England occupies most of the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. Elsewhere, it is bordered by the North Sea , Irish Sea, Atlantic Ocean , and English Channel.
England comprises the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain , plus offshore islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. It is bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. It is closer to continental Europe than any other part of Britain, and is only 24 miles (52 km) from France. The Channel Tunnel, near Folkestone, directly links England to the European mainland. The English/ French border is halfway along the tunnel.
England’s land area is 50,319 square miles (130,325 square kilometers), or slightly smaller than Louisiana in the United States .
Most of England consists of rolling hills, but it is more mountainous in the north with a chain of low mountains, the Pennines, dividing east and west. The dividing line between terrain types is usually indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There is also an area of flat, low-lying marshland in the east, the Fens, much of which has been drained for agricultural use.
The highest point in England is Scafell Pike, which at 3208 feet (978 meters) is part of the Cumbrian Mountains in North West England. Other mountain ranges and hills in England include the Chilterns, Cotswolds, Dartmoor, Lincolnshire Wolds, Exmoor, Lake District, Malvern Hills, Mendip Hills, North Downs, Peak District, Salisbury Plain, South Downs, Shropshire Hills, and Yorkshire Wolds. Until 1998, the Humber Bridge was the longest suspension bridge in the world.
England has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. Temperatures rarely fall below 23°F (-5°C) or rise above 86°F (30°C), although they can be quite variable. The prevailing wind is from the south-west, bringing mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean. It is driest in the east and warmest in the south, which is closest to the European mainland. Snowfall can occur in winter and early spring.
England’s best-known river is the Thames, which flows through London. At 215 miles (346km), it is the longest river in England. The River Severn is the longest in total, but it flows from the mountains of Wales, and the parts which run through England are shorter than the Thames. Other rivers include the Trent, Humber, Tyne, Tees, Ribble, Ouse, Mersey, Dee, and Avon.
The largest natural harbor is at Poole, on the south-central coast. English countryside on a fine summer’s day.
Originally, oak forests covered the lowlands, while pine forests and patches of moorland covered the higher or sandy ground. Much forest has been cleared for cultivation, so that by 2007, only about 9 percent of the total surface was wooded—in east and north of Scotland and in southeast England. Oak, elm, ash, and beech are the most common trees in England, while pine and birch are common in Scotland. Heather, grasses, gorse, and bracken predominate on the moorlands.
Wolves, bears, boars, and reindeer are extinct, but red and roe deer are protected for sport. Foxes, hares, hedgehogs, rabbits, weasels, stoats, shrews, rats, and mice are common, otters are found in many rivers, and seals appear along the coast. The chaffinch, blackbird, sparrow, and starling are the most numerous of the 230 species of birds there, and another 200 are migratory. Game birds—pheasants, partridges, and red grouse—are protected. The rivers and lakes contain salmon, trout, perch, pike, roach, dace, and grayling.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60 percent of food needs with only one percent of the labor force. It contributes around two percent of GDP . Around two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, and one third to arable crops.
As part of the United Kingdom , England is reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5 percent reduction from 1990] levels and intends to meet the legally binding target of a 20 percent cut in emissions by 2010. The government aims to reduce the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of in landfill sites to 85 percent of 1998 levels and to recycle or compost at least 25 percent of household waste, increasing to 33 percent by 2015. The City of Birmingham
The capital city of England is London , which is the largest city in Great Britain , and the largest city in the European Union by most measures. The Greater London Urban Area has a population of 8,278,251. The ancient City of London still retains its tiny medieval boundaries; but the name “London” has long applied more generally to the whole metropolis which has grown up around it. An important settlement for around two millennia, London is today one of the world’s leading business , financial and cultural centers, and its influence in politics, education , entertainment, media , fashion , and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the major global cities.
Birmingham is the second largest, both in terms of the city itself and its urban conurbation. A number of other cities, mainly in central and northern England, are of substantial size and influence. These include: Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield, Bristol, Coventry, Leicester, Nottingham, and Hull. History Prehistoric England Stonehenge , a Neolithic and Bronze Age megalithic monument in Wiltshire, thought to have been erected c.2000-2500 B.C.E.
Cro-Magnons (the first anatomically modern humans) are believed to have arrived in Europe about 40,000 years ago, and lived in the region that was to become England by 27,000 years ago. Up to around 6000 B.C.E. , England was connected to Europe, and was easily accessible by nomadic hunter-gatherers. Around 4000 B.C.E. , Neolithic immigrants brought agriculture, used stone tools, buried their dead in communal graves of stone or mounds of earth, and conducted rituals at henge monuments. From around 2300 B.C.E. , Beaker folk, who buried their dead in individual graves, often with a drinking vessel, arrived from the Low Countries and middle Rhine. These people knew how to work copper and gold. Wessex chieftains dominated trade, and ensuing prosperity enabled these chieftains to build the large bluestone monoliths known as Stonehenge . The Celts Principal sites in Roman Britain, with indication of the Celtic tribes.
From the eighth century B.C.E. , Celts arrived, and hill forts began to appear. A succession of migrations took place from 700 B.C.E. to 400 B.C.E. Settlements had a traditional round house, and farming was characterized by small fields, and storage pits for grain. Iron daggers were made, then swords, and with increasing pressure on resources, increasing numbers of hill forts were built. Romans invade
The first Roman invasion of the British Isles was led by Julius Caesar in 55 B.C.E. ; the second, a year later in 54 B.C.E. Although no territory was taken for the Roman Empire on either occasion, this was the start of the Roman settlement of Britain. The Romans had many supporters among the Celtic tribal leaders, who agreed to pay tributes to Rome in return for Roman protection. The Romans returned in 44 C.E. , led by Claudius , this time establishing control, and establishing a province Britannia. Initially an oppressive rule, gradually the new leaders gained a firmer hold on their new territory which at one point stretched from the south coast of England to Wales and as far away as Scotland (though they did not hold the latter for long). Hadrian’s Wall , built on the Solway-Tyne isthmus (122 C.E. C.E. ) marked the frontier of Roman civilization.
Over the approximately 350 years of Roman occupation of Britain, the majority of settlers were soldiers garrisoned on the mainland. It was with constant contact with Rome and the rest of Romanized Europe through trade and industry that the native Britons themselves adopted Roman culture and customs. Christianity introduced
Christianity is thought to have come from three directions—from Rome (via Roman merchants and soldiers), and from Scotland and Ireland . Christianity made little headway until the late fourth century, initially among wealthy villa owners. By the end of Roman rule, in 410 C.E. , Christian leaders followed the teachings of the Briton Pelagius (354-420), considered heretical, because he denied the doctrine of original sin , and emphasized the importance of the human will over divine grace in attaining salvation. This philosophy of self-reliance is a British characteristic. St Augustine (who died in 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury . The Synod of Whitby in 685 ultimately led to the English Church being fully part of Roman Catholicism. Anglo-Saxon England An Anglo-Saxon helmet found at Sutton Hoo .
The history of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the fifth century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066. It is speculated that the first Germanic immigrants to Britain arrived at the invitation of the Roman rulers. The traditional division into Angles, Saxons and Jutes is first seen in the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum by Bede , however historical and archaeological research has shown that a wider range of Germanic peoples from the coast of Frisia, Lower Saxony, Jutland, and Southern Sweden moved to Britain in this era. After the withdrawal of the last legions in the early fifth century, the number of newcomers increased, and it is speculated that relations with the ruling Romanized Britons became strained.
By about 449, open conflict had broken out, and the immigrants began to establish their own kingdoms in what would eventually become the Heptarchy, the seven petty kingdoms which eventually merged to become the Kingdom of England: Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and Wessex. As early as the time of Ethelbert of Kent (560-616), one king could be recognized as Bretwalda (“Lord of Britain”). The title fell in the seventh century to the kings of Northumbria, in the eighth to those of Mercia, and finally, in the ninth, to Egbert of Wessex, who in 825 defeated the Mercians at the Battle of Ellendun. In the next century his family came to rule all England. Vikings
The earliest Viking raid on Britain was 789 when, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , Portland was attacked. A more reliable report dates from June 8, 793, when the monastery at Lindisfarne on the east coast of England was pillaged. These raiders, whose expeditions extended well into the ninth century, were gradually followed by settlers who brought a new culture and tradition markedly different from that of the prevalent Anglo-Saxon society. These enclaves expanded, and soon Viking warriors established areas of control that could be described as kingdoms. Viking conquest of large parts of England established the Danelaw , a name given to northern and eastern England in which the laws of the Danes held predominance over those of the Anglo-Saxons. The Kingdom of England Statue of Alfred the Great at Winchester.
Originally, England (or Angleland) was a geographical term to describe the territory of Britain which was occupied by the Anglo-Saxons, rather than a name of an individual nation-state. During the ninth century, the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex came to dominate other kingdoms in England (especially as a result of the extinction of rival lines in England during the First Viking Age). Alfred the Great (849-899), who was king of Wessex from 871 to 899, defeated the Viking Guthrum at the Battle of Edington in 878.
England was unified in 927 by Athelstan. For several hundred years, the Kingdom of England would fall in and out of power between several Wessex and Danish kings. For over half a century, the unified Kingdom of England became part of a vast Danish empire under Canute the Great (995-1035), before regaining independence for a short period under the restored West-Saxon lineage of Edward the Confessor (1004-1066).
The Kingdom of England (including Wales) continued to exist as an independent nation-state right through to the Acts of Union and the Union of Crowns. However the political ties and direction of England were changed forever by the Norman Conquest in 1066. Norman conquest The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it.
William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy) landed in England in September 1066 to assert his claim to the throne. The Saxon king Harold II had just destroyed an invading Norwegian Viking army under King Harald Hardråda, ending the Viking age. William’s success at the Battle of Hastings (October 14, 1066), in which the Saxon king Harold II was killed, resulted in the Norman control of England . William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book , a survey of the entire population and their lands and property for tax purposes. The Norman conquest was a pivotal event in English history for a number of reasons. This conquest linked England more closely with Continental Europe through the introduction of a Norman aristocracy, thereby lessening Scandinavian influence. It created one of the most powerful monarchies in Europe and engendered a sophisticated governmental system. The use of the Anglo-Norman language by the aristocracy endured for centuries and left an indelible mark in the development of modern English. The conquest changed the English culture, and set the stage for rivalry with France , which would continue intermittently until the twentieth century. It has an iconic role in English national identity as the last successful military conquest of England. The Middle Ages Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the English victory over France at the Battle of Agincourt (1415), part of the Hundred Years War.
The English Middle Ages , which lasted from 1066 until conflicts over the English throne between the Houses of Lancaster and York, known as the Wars of the Roses , ended in 1487, were characterized by civil war, international war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political intrigue among the aristocratic and monarchic elite. England was an important part of expanding and dwindling empires based in France , with the “King of England” being a subsidiary title of a succession of French-speaking Dukes of territories in what became France. English kings used England as a source of troops to enlarge their personal holdings in France for the duration of the Hundred Years’ War (1337 to 1453). In fact the English crown did not relinquish its last foothold on mainland France until Calais was lost during the reign of Mary Tudor (the Channel Islands remain crown dependencies).
The Principality of Wales, under the control of English monarchs from the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, became part of the Kingdom of England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. Wales shared a legal identity with England as the joint entity originally called “England” and later “England and Wales.” Magna Carta The signing of the Magna Carta (1215).
The signing of the Magna Carta in 1215, had lasting impact. King John (1166 – 1216) suffered the loss of Normandy and numerous other French territories following the disastrous Battle of Bouvines in 1214. He managed to antagonize the feudal nobility and leading Church figures to the extent that in 1215, they led an armed rebellion and forced him to sign the Magna Carta, which required the king to renounce certain rights, respect certain legal procedures and accept that “the will of the king could be bound by law.” It established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes (except the feudal taxes to which they were hitherto accustomed) without the consent of a council. Magna Carta was the most significant early influence on the long historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law . The Black Death
An epidemic of catastrophic proportions, the Black Death first reached England in the summer of 1348. The Black Death is estimated to have killed between a third and two-thirds of Europe’s population. England alone lost as many as 70 percent of its population, which passed from seven million to two million in 1400. The plague repeatedly returned to haunt England throughout the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries. The Great Plague of London in 1665–1666 was the last plague outbreak. The English Reformation Portrait of John Wycliffe .
During the English Reformation, the external authority of the Roman Catholic Church in England was abolished and replaced with a Church of England, outside the Roman Catholic Church, under the Supreme Governance of the English monarch. The English Reformation differed from its European counterparts in that it was a political, rather than purely theological, dispute at root.
John Wycliffe (c. 1320–1384), an English theologian and early proponent of reform in the Roman Catholic Church , worked tirelessly on an English translation of the Bible in one complete edition. Since his beliefs and teachings seemed to compare closely with Luther , Calvin, and other reformers, historians have called Wycliffe “The Morning Star of the Reformation.” The itinerant preachers, called Lollards, Wycliffe sent throughout England, created a spiritual revolution. Intense persecution, from both the religious and secular authorities, cracked down on the Lollards sending the movement underground.
John Wycliffe denied the doctrine of transubstantiation , which holds that the bread and wine used in the Eucharist changes in substance into the body and blood of Jesus . He was condemned in a Papal Bull in 1410, and all his books were burned. The seeds of reform that Wycliffe planted were not to blossom until a couple hundred years later. The Tudors King Henry VIII of England.
The relatively unknown Henry Tudor, Henry VII, won the final conflict in the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, where the Yorkist Richard III was killed, thus beginning the Tudor period, which lasted until the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603.
King Henry VIII (1491-1547) split with the Roman Catholic Church over a question of his divorce from Catherine of Aragon . Though his religious position was not at all Protestant , the resultant schism ultimately led to England distancing itself almost entirely from Rome. There followed a period of great religious and political upheaval, which led to the English Reformation, the royal expropriation of the monasteries and much of the wealth of the church. The dissolution of the monasteries had the effect of giving many of the lower classes (the gentry) a vested interest in the Reformation continuing, for to halt it would be to revive Monasticism and restore lands which were gifted to them during the Dissolution.
Henry VIII had one legitimate child and two illegitimate children who survived him. Edward VI of England , Henry’s legitimate heir, was only a boy of 10 when he took the throne in 1547. When Edward VI lay dying of tuberculosis in 1553, Mary I (1516-1558) took the throne amidst popular demonstration in her favor in London. Mary, a devout Catholic, also known as Bloody Mary, tried to re-impose Catholicism, which led to 274 burnings of Protestants, which are recorded especially in John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs. She was highly unpopular among her people, and the Spanish party of her husband, Philip II caused resentment around Court. Mary died at the age of 42, to be succeeded by her half-sister, who became Elizabeth I . Queen Elizabeth I of England.
The reign of Elizabeth restored a sort of order to the realm. The religious issue, which had divided the country since Henry VIII, was put to rest by the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which created the Church of England in much the same form we see it today. The Act of Supremacy of 1559 re-established the English church’s independence from Rome, with parliament conferring on Elizabeth the title Supreme Governor of the Church of England, while the Act of Uniformity of 1559 set out the form the English church would take, including establishing the Book of Common Prayer , and phrasing the delicate issue of transubstantiation . Much of Elizabeth’s success was in balancing the interests of the Puritans (radical Protestants) and “die-hard” Catholics.
The slave trade that established Britain as a major economic power can be attributed to Elizabeth, who granted John Hawkins the permission to commence trading in 1562. The number of Africans transported to England was so great due to the slave trade that by 1596, Elizabeth complained. She tried unsuccessfully to expel them via a Proclamation in 1601. The Stuarts
Elizabeth died in 1603 without leaving any direct heirs. Her closest male Protestant relative was the King of Scots, James VI, of the House of Stuart, who, following the Union of the Crowns, became King James I of England . King James I & VI as he was styled became the first king of the entire island of Great Britain , though he continued to rule the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland separately. James survived a number of assassination attempts, notably the Main Plot and Bye Plots of 1603, and most famously, on November 5, 1605, the Gunpowder Plot , by a group of Catholic conspirators, led by Guy Fawkes, which was stoked up and served as further fuel for antipathy in England towards the Catholic faith. British colonies
Plantations in Ireland, from 1608, formed a pattern for establishing colonies, and several people involved in those projects also had a hand in the early colonization of North America—Humphrey Gilbert, Walter Raleigh , Francis Drake and Ralph Lane. In 1607, England built an establishment in Virginia (Jamestown), in what was to become the United States of America . This was the beginning of English colonization. Many English settled in North America for religious or economic reasons. While the first party religious pilgrims left for the New World in 1620, in the second half of the seventeenth century, those numbers increased dramatically, as these religious pilgrims sought a land where they could worship freely.
The English merchants holding plantations in the warm southern parts of America then resorted rather quickly to the slavery of Native Americans and imported Africans in order to cultivate their plantations and sell raw material (particularly cotton and tobacco) in Europe. The English merchants involved in colonization accrued fortunes equal to those of great aristocratic landowners in England, and their money, which fueled the rise of the middle class, permanently altered the balance of political power.
The empire took shape during the early seventeenth century, with the English settlement of the eastern colonies of North America, which would later become the original United States , as well as Canada ‘s Atlantic provinces, and the colonization of the smaller islands of the Caribbean such as Saint Kitts, Barbados and Jamaica . The sugar-producing colonies of the Caribbean, where slavery became central to the economy, were at first England’s most important and lucrative colonies. Civil war Cromwell at Dunbar . Oliver Cromwell united the whole of the British Isles by force and created the Commonwealth of England. King Charles I, who was beheaded in 1649.
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. The English Civil War broke out in 1642, largely as a result of an ongoing series of conflicts between James’ son, Charles I , and Parliament. The defeat of the Royalist army by the New Model Army of Parliament at the Battle of Naseby in June 1645 effectively destroyed the king’s forces. Charles surrendered to the Scottish army at Newark. He was handed over to the English Parliament in early 1647. He escaped and the Second English Civil War began, although it was to be only a short conflict, with parliament quickly securing the country. The capture and subsequent trial of Charles led to his beheading in January 1649 at Whitehall Gate in London. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651. The English monarchy was replaced with the Commonwealth of England (1649–1653) and then with a Protectorate (1653–1659), under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell . After a brief return to Commonwealth rule, in 1660 The Crown was restored and Charles II accepted parliament’s invitation to return to England.
During this period from 1649-1660, known as the “interregnum,” the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England came to an end, and the victors consolidated the already-established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established a precedent that British monarchs could not govern without the consent of Parliament although this would not be cemented until the Glorious Revolution later in the century.
In 1665, the plague, swept through London, and in 1666, the Great Fire raged for five days, destroying approximately 15,000 buildings. Glorious Revolution
The death of Charles II in 1685 meant his Catholic brother was crowned King James II & VII . England with a Catholic King on the throne was too much for both people and parliament and in 1689 the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange was invited to replace King James II in what became known as the Glorious Revolution . Despite attempts to secure his reign by force, James was finally defeated by William at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. On February 13, 1689, parliament passed the Declaration of Right, in which it deemed that James, by attempting to flee on December 11, 1688, had abdicated the government of the realm, thereby leaving the Throne vacant. William and Mary were crowned together at Westminster Abbey on April 11, 1689.
William III of England encouraged the passage of the Act of Toleration 1689, which guaranteed religious toleration to certain Protestant nonconformists. It did not, however, extend toleration to Roman Catholics or those of non-Christian faiths. Thus the Act was not as wide-ranging as James II’s Declaration of Indulgence, which attempted to grant freedom of conscience to people of all faiths.
However, in parts of Scotland and Ireland Catholics loyal to James remained determined to see him restored to the throne and there followed a series of bloody though unsuccessful uprisings. As a result of these, any failure to pledge loyalty to the victorious King William was severely dealt with. The most infamous example of this policy being the Massacre of Glencoe in 1692. Jacobite rebellions continued on into the mid-eighteenth century until the son of the last Catholic claimant to the throne, |James III & VIII, mounted a final campaign in 1745. The Jacobite forces of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, the “Bonnie Prince Charlie” of legend, were resoundingly defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. United Kingdom formed Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 , painting by Walter Thomas Monnington.
Under the Acts of Union 1707 , England (including Wales) and Scotland, which had been in personal union since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, agreed to a political union in the form of a unified Kingdom of Great Britain . The Act of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland, which had been gradually brought under English control between 1541 and 1691, to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801.
Since 1707, England , while ceasing to exist as an independent political entity, has remained highly dominant in what is now the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland . Due to her geographic size and large population, the dominant political and economic influence in the UK stems from England. London has remained the capital city of the UK and has built upon its status as the economic and political center of the UK. Enlightenment Britain
Britain was an important part of the Age of Enlightenment with philosophical and scientific input and a literary and theatrical tradition. Over the next century England played an important role in developing Western ideas of parliamentary democracy, partly via the emergence of a multi-party system, as evidenced in the rise of the Whig and Tory political parties. There were significant contributions to literature, the arts and science. But, like other Great Powers, England was involved in colonial exploitation, including the infamous Atlantic slave trade , until the passing of the 1807 Slave Trade Act made Great Britain the first nation to permanently prohibit trade in slaves.
Confidence in the rule of law, which followed establishment of the prototype of constitutional monarchy in Britain in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the emergence of a stable financial market there based on the management of the national debt by the Bank of England , contributed to the capacity for, and interest in, private financial investment in industrial ventures. In addition, Britain had an entrepreneurial class which believed in progress, technology and hard work. This Protestant work ethic has been regarded as one of the cornerstones of national prosperity. The British Empire
After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) in the Napoleonic Wars (1804-1815), Britain became the principal naval power of the nineteenth century. At its peak, the British Empire was the largest empire in history and for a substantial time was the foremost global power. The Industrial Revolution Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany. The spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the Industrial Revolution.
England led the Industrial Revolution , a period in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when technological advances and mechanization transformed a largely agrarian society throughout Europe, causing considerable social upheaval. Much of the agricultural workforce was uprooted from the countryside and moved into large urban centers of production, as the steam-based production factories could undercut traditional cottage industries. The consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure saw dramatic increases in the rise of infant mortality (to the extent that many Sunday schools for pre-working age children, five or six, had funeral clubs to pay for each other’s funeral arrangements), crime, and social deprivation. Many workers saw their livelihoods threatened by the process, and some frequently sabotaged or attempted to sabotage factories. These saboteurs were known as Luddites. Suffrage extended
During the early nineteenth century, the working classes began to find a voice. Concentrations of industry led to the formation of guilds and unions, which, although at first suppressed, eventually became powerful enough to resist government policy. Chartism is thought to have originated from the passing of the 1832 Reform Bill, which gave the vote to the majority of the (male) middle classes, but not to the “working class.” Many people made speeches on the “betrayal” of the working class and the “sacrificing” of their “interests” by the “misconduct” of the government. In 1838, six members of Parliament and six working men formed a committee, which then published the People’s Charter.
But by the end of the Victorian era (1900), England lost its industrial leadership, particularly to the United States , which surpassed England in industrial production and trade in the 1890s, as well as to the German Empire. Victorian England Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era
England’s Victorian era marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire . Although commonly used to refer to the period of Queen Victoria’s rule between 1837 and 1901, scholars debate whether the Victorian period—as defined by a variety of sensibilities and political concerns that have come to be associated with the Victorians—actually begins with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. The era was preceded by the Regency era and succeeded by the Edwardian period
By virtue of Queen Victoria’s marriage to Prince Albert, son of Duke Ernst I of the small German duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, her descendants were members of the ducal family of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha with the house name of Wettin. Victoria’s son Edward VII and his son George V reigned as members of this house. World War I
The First World War was a global military conflict which took place primarily in Europe between 1914 and 1918. More than nine million soldiers and civilians died. The conflict had a decisive impact on the history of the twentieth century. The Entente Powers, led by France , Russia, the United Kingdom and later Italy (from 1915) and the United States (from 1917), defeated the Central Powers, led by the Austro-Hungarian , German, and Ottoman Empires. Russia withdrew from the war after the revolution in 1917.
High anti-German feeling among the people during World War I prompted the Royal Family to abandon all titles held under the German crown and to change German-sounding titles and house names for English-sounding versions. On July 17, 1917, a royal proclamation by George V provided that all agnatic descendants of Queen Victoria would be members of the House of Windsor with the personal surname of Windsor. The name Windsor has a long association with English royalty through the town of Windsor and Windsor Castle . A graphic depiction of the state of international relations in pre-World War I Europe.
After the carnage of the Great War , Britain remained an eminent power, and its empire expanded to its maximum size, gaining the League of Nations mandate over former German and Ottoman colonies after World War I. By 1921, the British Empire held sway over a population of about 458 million people, approximately one-quarter of the world’s population. It covered about 14.2 million square miles, about a quarter of Earth’s total land area. As a result, its legacy is widespread, in legal and governmental systems, economic practice, militarily, educational systems, sports (such as cricket, rugby and football ), and in the global spread of the English language and Anglican Christianity. At the peak of its power, it was often said that “the sun never sets on the British Empire” because its span across the globe ensured that the sun was always shining on at least one of its numerous colonies or subject nations.
Independence for the Irish Free State in 1922 followed the partition of Ireland two years previously, with six of the nine counties of the province of Ulster remaining within the UK, which then changed in 1927 to the name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. World War II The famous Spitfire of the RAF in World War II .
The Second World War was a worldwide military conflict which lasted from 1939 to 1945. It was the amalgamation of two conflicts, one beginning in Asia, in 1937, as the Second Sino-Japanese War and the other beginning in Europe, in 1939, with the invasion of Poland. It is regarded as the historical successor to World War I . The majority of the world’s nations split into two opposing camps: The Allies and the Axis . England fought with its Commonwealth allies including Canada , Australia , New Zealand , South Africa , and India , later to be joined by further allies. Spanning much of the globe, World War II resulted in the deaths of over 60 million people, making it the deadliest conflict in human history. The conflict ended in an Allied victory.
Wartime leader Winston Churchill and his successor Clement Atlee helped plan the post-war world as part of the “Big Three.” World War II , however, left England financially and physically damaged. Loans taken out during and after World War II from the United States and from Canada were economically costly, but, along with post-war U.S. Marshall aid , they started England on the road to recovery. As a result, the United States and Soviet Union emerged as the world’s two leading superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War for the next 45 years. Independence movements arose in Asia and Africa, while Europe itself began traveling the road leading to integration. During the five decades following World War II, most of the territories of the Empire became independent. Many went on to join the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states. Multi-ethnic welfare state
The immediate post-war years brought the establishment of the British Welfare State and one of the world’s first and most comprehensive health services, while the demands of a recovering economy brought people from all over the Commonwealth to create a multi-ethnic England. Although the new postwar limits of Britain’s political role were confirmed by the Suez Crisis of 1956, the international currency of the language meant the continuing impact of its literature and culture , while at the same time from the 1960s its popular culture found an influence abroad.
Following a period of economic stagnation and industrial strife in the 1970s after a global economic downturn, the 1980s saw the inflow of substantial North Sea oil revenues, and the premiership of Margaret Thatcher , under whom there was a marked break with the post-war political and economic consensus. Her supporters credit her with economic success, but her critics blame her for greater social division. From the mid-1990s onward these trends largely continued under the leadership of Tony Blair .
The United Kingdom has been a member of the European Union since 1973. The attitude of the Labour government (from the mid 1990s to mid 2000s) towards further integration with this organization has been mixed, and the Liberal Democrats supportive. Government and politics A medieval manuscript, showing the Parliament of England in front of the king c. 1300.
There has not been a Government of England since 1707, when the Kingdom of England merged with the Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain , although both kingdoms have been ruled by a single monarch since 1603. Prior to the Acts of Union of 1707, England was ruled by a monarch and the Parliament of England.
The Scottish and Welsh governing institutions were created by the UK parliament with support from the majority of people of Scotland and Wales in referenda in 1997, and are not independent of the rest of Britain. However, this gave each country a separate and distinct political identity, leaving England (with 83 percent of the UK population) as the only part of Britain directly ruled in nearly all matters by the British government in London. In Cornwall, a region of England claiming a distinct national identity, there has been a campaign for a Cornish assembly along Welsh lines by nationalist parties such as Mebyon Kernow.
Because Westminster is the UK parliament but also votes on local English matters (England has no parliament of its own) devolution of national matters to parliament/assemblies in Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland has refocused attention on a long-standing anomaly called the West Lothian question. Before Scottish devolution, purely-Scottish matters were debated at Westminster, but subject to a convention that only Scottish MPs could vote on them. The “question” was that there was no “reverse” convention: Scottish MPs could and did vote on issues relating only to England and Wales. The Palace of Westminster, Parliament of the United Kingdom .
Welsh devolution has removed the anomaly for Wales, but highlighted the anomaly for England: Scottish and Welsh MPs can vote on English issues, but purely Scottish and Welsh issues are debated in Scotland and Wales, not at Westminster. This problem is exacerbated by an over-representation of Scottish MPs in the government,sometimes referred to as the Scottish mafia; as of September 2006, seven of the 23 cabinet members were Scottish. In addition, Scotland traditionally benefited from moderate malapportionment in its favor, increasing its representation to a degree disproportionate to its population; only recently has the Boundary Commission turned its attention to this issue and not until the 2007 redrawing of boundaries has Scotland’s representation been in line with the rest of the UK.
In terms of national administration, England’s affairs are managed by a combination of the UK government, the UK parliament, a number of England-specific quangos, such as English Heritage, and the mostly unelected regional assemblies (a kind of nascent executive for each English region).
There are calls for a devolved English Parliament, and some English people and parties go further by calling for the dissolution of the union entirely. However, the approach favored by the Labour government was (on the basis that England is too large to be governed as a single sub-state entity) to propose the devolution of power to the regions of England. Lord Falconer claimed a devolved English parliament would dwarf the rest of the United Kingdom. Referenda would decide whether people wanted to vote for directly-elected regional assemblies to watch over the work of the non-elected regional development agencies. Subdivisions Administrative divisions of England.
Historically, the highest level of local government in England was the county. These divisions had emerged from a range of units of old, pre-unification England (such as the kingdoms of Sussex and Kent) and further medieval reorganizations (sometimes using duchies such as Lancashire and Cornwall). These historical county lines were usually drawn up before the Industrial Revolution and the mass urbanization of England. The counties each had a county town and many county names were drawn from these (for example Nottinghamshire, from Nottingham).
A series of local government reorganizations took place since the latter part of the nineteenth century. The solution to the emergence of large urban areas was the creation of large metropolitan counties centered on cities (an example being Greater Manchester). The creation of unitary authorities, where districts gained the administrative status of a county, began with the 1990s reform of local government. Some confusion persists between the ceremonial counties (which do not necessarily form an administrative unit) and the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. Structure of administrative divisions of England.
Non-metropolitan counties (or “shire counties”) are divided into one or more districts. At the very lowest level, England is divided into parishes, though these are not to be found everywhere (many urban areas for example are unparished). Parishes are prohibited from existing in Greater London.
England was also divided into nine regions, which do not have an elected authority and exist to co-ordinate certain local government functions across a wider area. Greater London is an exception, however, and is the one region which now has a representative authority as well as a directly elected mayor. The 32 London boroughs and the Corporation of London remain the local form of government in the city. Economics The City of London is a business and commercial center, ranking alongside New York City as the leading center of global finance.
England’s economy is the second largest economy in Europe and the fifth largest economy in the world. It follows the Anglo-Saxon economic model. England’s economy is the largest of the four economies of the United Kingdom, with 100 of Europe’s 500 largest corporations based in London. As part of the United Kingdom, England is a major center of world economics. One of the world’s most highly industrialized countries, England is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry and the manufacturing side of the software industry. London exports mainly manufactured goods and imports materials such as petroleum , tea, wool , raw sugar, timber , butter, metals , and meat, exporting over 30,000 metric tons of beef in 2005, worth around £75,000,000, with France , Italy , Greece , the Netherlands , Belgium , and Spain being the biggest importers of beef from England.
The central bank of the United Kingdom, which sets interest rates and implements monetary policy, is the Bank of England in London. London is also home to the London Stock Exchange, the main stock exchange in the UK and the largest in Europe. London , is one of the international leaders in finance and the largest financial center in Europe. The Bullring shopping center in Birmingham attracted 36.5 million visitors in its début year upon opening in 2003.
Traditional heavy and manufacturing industries declined sharply in England in the late twentieth century, as they have in the United Kingdom as a whole. At the same time, service industries have grown in importance. For example, tourism is the sixth largest industry in the UK, contributing 76 billion pounds to the economy. It employs 1,800,000 full-time equivalent people—6.1 percent of the working population (2002 figures). The largest center for tourism is London, which attracts millions of international tourists every year. As part of the United Kingdom, England’s official currency is the pound sterling (also known as the British pound or GBP). Transport
BAA Limited runs many of England’s airports, its flagship being London Heathrow Airport, the largest airport by traffic volume in Europe and one of the world’s busiest airports, and London Gatwick Airport, the second largest. The third largest is Manchester Airport. This is run by Manchester Airport Group, which also owns various other airports. Other major airports include London Stansted Airport in Essex, about 30 miles (50 km) north of London and Birmingham International Airport.
The growth in private car ownership in the latter half of the twentieth century led to a number of road-building programmes. Important trunk roads built include the A1 Great North Road from London to Newcastle and Edinburgh, and the A580 “East Lancs.” road between Liverpool and Manchester. The Preston Bypass was the first section of motorway and opened in 1958—it now forms part of the M6 motorway, the country’s longest motorway running from Rugby through North West England to the Scottish border.
The National Rail network consists of 10,072 route miles (16,116 route km) in Great Britain, of which the majority is in England. Urban rail networks are also well developed in London and several other cities, including the Manchester Metrolink and the London Underground, the oldest and most extensive underground railway in the world, and consisting in 2007 of 253 miles (407 kilometers) of line and serves 275 stations.
There are around 4400 miles of navigable waterways in England, of which roughly half is owned by British Waterways. It is estimated that 165 million journeys are made by people on Britain’s waterways annually. The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at Tilbury, one of the three major ports in the UK. Demographics Demography of England.
With 50,431,700 inhabitants, or 84 percent of the UK’s total population, England is the most populous nation in the United Kingdom, as well as being the most ethnically diverse. England would have the fourth largest population in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population if it were a sovereign state.
The country’s population is “aging,” with a declining percentage of the population under age 16 and a rising one of over 65. England is one of the most densely populated countries in Europe, with 992 people per square mile (383 people per square kilometer) making it second only to the Netherlands .
The economic prosperity of England has made it a destination for economic migrants from Scotland , Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland . This was particularly true during the Industrial Revolution . Since the fall of the British Empire , numerous people from former colonies have migrated to Britain including the Indian sub-continent and the British Caribbean .
The continuous increase in population resulted from net immigration, from a rising birth rate, and increasing life expectancy—of 78.7 years for the total population in 2007. Ethnicity
The generally accepted view is that the ethnic background of the English populace, before nineteenth- and twentieth-century immigration, was a mixed European one deriving from historical waves of Celtic , Roman , Anglo-Saxon, Norse, and Norman invasions, along with the possible survival of pre-Celtic ancestry. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries, furthermore, brought much new immigration to England. Trafalgar Square in London is one of the most famous public places in England.
In the 2001 Census, 7.9 percent of the UK’s population identified themselves as an “ethnic minority.” In some English cities the percentage of “minority groups” is large but is still less than half. For example; Birmingham (UK’s second largest city) has 29.6 percent, and Leicester 36 percent. There are a large number of Indians, mainly from northern India, who make up about 2.0 percent of the population.
Ethnicity, as detailed in the 2001 UK Census: White British 85.67 percent, white (other) 5.27 percent, Indian 1.8 percent, Pakistani 1.3 percent, mixed race 1.2 percent, white Irish 1.2 percent, black Caribbean 1.0 percent, black African 0.8 percent, Bangladeshi 0.5 percent, Asian (non-Chinese), 0.4 percent, British Chinese 0.4 percent, other 0.4 percent, and black (others) 0.2 percent.
Ethnicity aside, the simplest view is that an English person is someone who was born in England and holds British nationality, regardless of his or her racial origin. The English frequently include themselves and their neighbors in the wider term of “British,” while the Scots and Welsh tend to be more forward about referring to themselves by one of those more specific terms. This reflects a more subtle form of English-specific patriotism in England; St George’s Day, the country’s national day, is barely celebrated, though celebrations have increased. Modern celebration of English identity is often found around its sports, one field in which the British Home Nations often compete individually—in football (soccer), rugby union, and cricket. Religion Stained glass from Rochester Cathedral in Kent, England, incorporating the Flag of England.
Unlike many countries, which are officially secular , the UK is an officially Christian country. This is reflected throughout British public life. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, and acts as the “mother” and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Originally established as part of the Roman Catholic Church in 597 by Augustine of Canterbury on behalf of Pope Gregory I , the Church split from Rome in 1534 during the reign of Henry VIII of England . Some Church of England bishops sit in the House of Lords. The British monarch is required to be a member of the Church of England under the Act of Settlement 1701 and is the Supreme Governor. Roman Catholics are expressly forbidden from becoming monarch, stemming from conflict over the crown and whether Britain was in the past, Catholic or Protestant . The Church of England is based at Canterbury Cathedral and the Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman. Canterbury Cathedral—mother church of the Church of England.
Other major Christian Protestant denominations in England include the Methodist Church , the Baptist Church and the United Reformed Church. Smaller denominations include the Religious Society of Friends (the “Quakers”) and the Salvation Army —both founded in England. There are also Afro-Caribbean Churches, especially in the London area. The Roman Catholic Church re-established a hierarchy in England in the nineteenth century. Attendances were considerably boosted by immigration, especially from Ireland and more recently Poland .
However, immigration has brought an enormous diversity of religious belief in England, levels of church attendance has declined, and there is a growing percentage that have no religious affiliation. Census data regarding religious belief: Christianity 71.6 percent, Islam 3.1 percent, Hindu 1.1 percent, Sikh 0.7 percent, Jewish 0.5 percent, and Buddhist 0.3 percent, no faith 22.3 percent. The EU Eurobarometer poll of 2005 shows that only 38 percent of people in the UK believe in a god and that religious belief is on the decline. Language Places in the world where English is spoken. Countries are dark blue where English is an official language, de facto official language, or national language. Countries are light blue where it is an official, non-primary language or non-official primary language.
The English language, which is spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue, although not officially designated as such. An Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family, it is closely related to Scots and Frisian. As the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms merged into England, “Old English” emerged; some of its literature and poetry has survived.
Used by aristocracy and commoners alike before the Norman Conquest (1066), English was displaced in cultured contexts under the new regime by the Norman French language of the new Anglo-Norman aristocracy. Its use was confined primarily to the lower social classes while official business was conducted in a mixture of Latin and French. Over the following centuries, however, English gradually came back into fashion among all classes and for all official business except certain traditional ceremonies, some of which survive to this day. But Middle English, as it had by now become, showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling. During the Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins; and in more recent years, Modern English has extended this custom, being always remarkable for its far-flung willingness to incorporate foreign-influenced words. Beowulf is one of the oldest surviving epic poems in what is identifiable as a form of the English language.
It is most commonly accepted that—thanks in large part to the British Empire, and now the United States—the English language became the world’s unofficial lingua franca, while English common law is also the foundation of many legal systems throughout the English-speaking countries of the world. English language learning and teaching is an important economic sector, including language schools, tourism spending, and publishing houses.
UK legislation does not recognize any language as being official, but English is the only language used in England for general official business.
The only non-Anglic native spoken language in England is the Cornish language, a Celtic language spoken in Cornwall, which became extinct in the nineteenth century but has been revived and is spoken in various degrees of fluency, currently by around 2000 people. Languages spoken within ethnic minority communities include Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Punjabi, Urdu, Polish, Greek, Turkish, and Cantonese, as well as Romany.
Despite the relatively small size of the nation, there are a many distinct English regional accents. Those with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood elsewhere in the country. Use of foreign non-standard varieties of English (such as Caribbean English) is also increasingly widespread, mainly because of the effects of immigration. Men and women
About half of British women work, and of these, half are part-time workers. The ideal of gender equality is widely shared, but inequality is evident in access to occupations by women and men, pay levels for similar kinds of work, and in the allocation of domestic tasks. Marriage and the family
Historically most people in England lived either in conjugal extended families or nuclear families . This reflected an economic landscape where most people tended to have less spending power, meaning that it was more practical to stick together rather than go their individual ways. This pattern also reflected gender roles . Men were expected to go out to work and women were expected to stay at home and look after the families.
In the twentieth century, the emancipation of women, the greater freedoms enjoyed by both men and women in the years following the Second World War , greater affluence and easier divorce have changed gender roles and living arrangements significantly. The trend is a rise in single people living alone, the virtual extinction of the extended family (outside certain ethnic minority communities), and the nuclear family reducing in prominence.
From the 1990s, the break-up of the traditional family unit, when combined with a low interest rate environment and other demographic changes, has created great pressure on the housing market, in particular regarding the accommodation of key workers such as nurses, other emergency service workers and teachers, who are priced out of most housing, especially in South East England.
Some research indicates that in the twenty-first century, young people tend to live in the parental home for much longer than their predecessors. The high cost of living, combined with rising cost of accommodation, further education and higher education means that many young people cannot afford to live independent lives from their families.
Premarital sex and unmarried cohabitation are widely accepted. However, single motherhood caused by unstable cohabiting relationships, or marital breakdown, or as a means of obtaining welfare, is seen as a big problem because of its drain on the welfare budget, and subsequent problems of child abuse, and juvenile delinquency, rather than as a moral question. Education Shrewsbury Sixth Form College in Shropshire. The chapel of King’s College, Cambridge University .
England is home to the oldest existing schools in the English speaking world: The King’s School, Canterbury and The King’s School, Rochester, believed to be founded in the sixth and seventh century respectively. There are at least eight existing schools in England which were founded in the first millennium. Most of these ancient institutions are fee-paying schools, although there are early examples of state schools in England, most notably Beverley Grammar School founded in 700. State and private schools and colleges have continued side by side since that time. Other famous English schools include Eton College (founded 1440), Harrow School (1572)Winchester College (1382), Tonbridge School (1553) and Charterhouse School (1611). The oldest surviving girls’ school in England is Red Maids’ School, founded in 1634.
England is home to the two oldest universities in the English speaking world: Oxford University (twelfth century) and Cambridge University (early thirteenth century). There are more than ninety universities in England and many of these (most notably the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London) consist of autonomous colleges many of which are world famous in their own right, for example University College, Oxford (founded 1249), Peterhouse, Cambridge (1284) and the London School of Economics (1895).
England’s high literacy rate of 99 percent is attributable to universal public education introduced for the primary level in 1870 and secondary level in 1900. The education is split into two main types; State schools which are funded through taxation and free to all, and private schools, which provide a paid-for education on top of taxes (also known as “Public” or “Independent” schools).
Most English (but not independent) schools usher students through nursery school, one of two primary school tracks, and one of two secondary tracks, of which sixth form is optional. About one-fifth of British students go on to post-secondary education (18+).
Education follows the national curriculum, which was introduced in 1988, which includes the core subjects English, mathematics, and science and the foundation subjects: Design and technology, [[information and communication technology], history , geography, modern foreign languages (MFL), music , art and design, and the subjects of the basic curriculum, physical education , citizenship education, plus compulsory religious education (RE) which has a unique place in British law. Class
Traditionally, British society has been stratified into three classes, with the highest occupied by the aristocratic inheritors of old, landed wealth. Those in the working class typically grew up in a family supported by wages earned in industrial or agricultural labor, where neither parent had university education, and the family home was rented. The working class supports the trade union movement and the Labor Party. A middle-class person has parents with white-collar jobs, who are likely to have higher education, own their suburban house, and who see education as the key to advancement. They tend to support the Conservative Party, which stresses self-sufficiency and individualism. However, de-industrialization, increased social mobility, and the emergence of the knowledge economy have re-defined notions of class, so that numerous educated middle class people vote for the Labor Party. Culture The British Airways London Eye.
Many of the most important figures in the history of modern western scientific and philosophical thought were either born in, or at one time or other resided in, England. Major English thinkers of international significance include scientists such as Sir Isaac Newton , Francis Bacon , Charles Darwin and New Zealand-born Ernest Rutherford , philosophers such as John Locke , John Stuart Mill , Bertrand Russell and Thomas Hobbes , and economists such as David Ricardo and John Maynard Keynes . Karl Marx wrote most of his important works, including Das Kapital, while in exile in London, and the team that developed the first atomic bomb began their work in the England, under the wartime codename tube alloys . Architecture The dome of St Paul’s Cathedral designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
The earliest remnants of architecture in the United Kingdom are mainly Neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury , and Roman ruins such as the spa in Bath. Many castles remain from the medieval period and in most towns and villages the parish church is an indication of the age of the settlement, built as they were from stone rather than the traditional wattle and daub.
Over the two centuries following the Norman conquest of 1066, and the building of the Tower of London], many great castles such as Caernarfon Castle in Wales and Carrickfergus Castle in Ireland were built to suppress the natives. Windsor Castle is the largest inhabited castle in the world and the oldest in continuous occupation. Large houses continued to be fortified until the Tudor period, when the first of the large gracious unfortified mansions such as the Elizabethan Montacute House and Hatfield House were built.
The English Civil War (1642—1649) proved to be the last time in British history that houses had to survive a siege. Corfe Castle was destroyed following an attack by Oliver Cromwell ‘s army, but Compton Wynyates survived a similar ordeal. Inigo Jones, from just before the Civil War, and who is regarded as the first significant British architect, was responsible for importing Palladian architecture to Britain from Italy . The Queen’s House at Greenwich is perhaps his best surviving work.
Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, one of the best-known British architects, Sir Christopher Wren , was employed to design and rebuild many of the ruined ancient churches of London, although his master plan for rebuilding London as a whole was rejected. It was in this period that he designed the building that he is perhaps best known for, St Paul’s Cathedral.
In the early eighteenth century baroque architecture—popular in Europe—was introduced, and Blenheim Palace was built. However, baroque was quickly replaced by a return of the Palladian form. The Georgian architecture of the eighteenth century was an evolved form of Palladianism. Many existing buildings such as Woburn Abbey and Kedleston Hall are in this style. Among the many architects of this form of architecture and its successors, neoclassicism and Romanticism , were Robert Adam , Sir William Chambers, and James Wyatt.
In the early nineteenth century the romantic medieval gothic style appeared as a backlash to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the nineteenth century, as a result of new technology, construction incorporated steel. One of the greatest exponents of this was Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace. Paxton also continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular retrospective English Renaissance styles. In this era of prosperity and development British architecture embraced many new methods of construction, but ironically in style, such architects as August Pugin ensured it remained firmly in the past.
At the beginning of the twentieth century a new form of design—arts and crafts—became popular. The architectural form of this style, which had evolved from the nineteenth century designs of such architects as George Devey, was championed by Edwin Lutyens. Arts and crafts in architecture is symbolized by an informal, non-symmetrical form, often with mullioned or lattice windows, multiple gables and tall chimneys. This style continued to evolve until World War II .
Following the Second World War, reconstruction went through a variety of phases, but was heavily influenced by Modernism , especially from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. Many bleak town center redevelopments—criticized for featuring hostile, concrete-lined “windswept plazas”—were the fruit of this interest, as were many equally bleak public buildings, such as the Hayward Gallery. Many Modernist-inspired town centers are today in the process of being redeveloped.
In the immediate post-war years, perhaps hundreds of thousands of council houses in vernacular style were built, giving working class people their first experience of private gardens and indoor sanitation. Terraced houses are typical in inner cities and places of high population density.
Modernism remains a significant force in English architecture, although its influence is felt predominantly in commercial buildings. The two most prominent proponents are Lord Rogers of Riverside, who created Rogers’ the iconic London Lloyd’s Building and the Millennium Dome, and Lord Foster of Thames Bank, who created the Swiss Re Buildings (aka The Gherkin) and the City Hall (London).
Since England has one of the highest population densities in Europe, housing tends to be smaller and more closely packed, particularly compared to North America. The British have a particular affinity with the terraced house, dating back to the aftermath of the Great Fire of London. The majority of surviving housing built before 1914 is of this type, and consequently it dominates inner residential areas. In the twentieth century the process of suburbanization led to a spread of semi-detached and detached housing. In the aftermath of the Second World War , public housing was dramatically expanded to create a large number of council estates, although most units in these have since been bought by their tenants. Art The Grand Canal, Venice by J. M. W. Turner, painted 1835. Thomas Gainsborough’s Blue boy, painted 1770. Salisbury Cathedral by John Constable, c. 1825.
The oldest art in the United Kingdom can be dated to the Neolithic period, and is found in a funerary context. But it is in the Bronze age that the first innovative artworks are found. The Beaker people, who arrived in Britain around 2500 B.C.E. , were skilled in metal refining, working at first in copper , but later bronze and gold . The Wessex culture excelled in making gold ornaments. Works of art placed in graves or sacrificial pits have survived.
In the Iron Age, the Celts made gold ornaments, but stone and most likely wood was also used. This style continued into the Roman period, and would find a renaissance in the Medieval period. It also survived in the Celtic areas not occupied by the Romans, largely corresponding to the present-day Wales and Scotland .
The Romans brought with them the classical style, glasswork, and mosaics. Christian art from the fourth century, has been preserved in mosaics with Christian symbols and pictures. Celtic and Scandinavian art have in common the use of intricate, intertwined patterns of decoration.
Anglo-Saxon sculpting was outstanding for its time in the eleventh century, as proved by pre-Norman ivory carvings. Celtic high crosses show the use of Celtic patterns in Christian art. Scenes from the Bible were depicted, framed with the ancient patterns. Some ancient symbols were redefined. Murals were painted on the white-chalked walls of stone churches, and stained glass was used in church and other windows. The Peacock Skirt, by Aubrey Beardsley.
As a reaction to abstract expressionism , pop art emerged originally in England at the end of the 1950s.
Significant figures in English art include William Blake , William Hogarth , J.M.W. Turner and John Constable in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Twentieth century artists included Francis Bacon , David Hockney, Bridget Riley, and the pop artists Richard Hamilton and Peter Blake. New York-born Sir Jacob Epstein was a pioneer of modern sculpture . More recently, the so-called Young British Artists have gained some notoriety, particularly Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin. Notable illustrators include Aubrey Beardsley, Roger Hargreaves, and Beatrix Potter .
England is home to the National Gallery, Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool, Tate St. Ives, and the Tate Modern. Cinema
England has been influential in the technological, commercial, and artistic development of cinema and probably second only to the USA in producing the greatest quantity of world-wide film stars. Despite a history of successful productions, the industry is characterized by an ongoing debate about its identity (including economic and cultural issues) and the influences of American and European cinema, although it is fair to say a brief “golden age” was enjoyed in the 1940s from the studios of J. Arthur Rank and Korda.
Modern cinema is generally regarded as descending from the work of the French Lumière brothers in 1892, and their show first came to London in 1896. However, the first moving pictures developed on celluloid film were made in Hyde Park, London in 1889 by William Friese Greene, a British inventor, who patented the process in 1890. The film is the first known instance of a projected moving image. The first people to build and run a working 35 mm camera in Britain were Robert W. Paul and Birt Acres. They made the first British film Incident at Clovelly Cottage in February 1895, shortly before falling out over the camera’s patent. Clothing A Beefeater in everyday undress uniform Morris dancing in the grounds of Wells Cathedral, Wells, England – Exeter Morris Men
There is no specifically British national costume. In England, certain military uniforms such as the Beefeater or the Queen’s Guard are considered to be symbolic of Englishness, though they are not official national costumes. Morris dancers or the costumes for the traditional English May dance are cited by some as examples of traditional English costume.
This is in large part due to the critical role that British sensibilities have played in world clothing since the eighteenth century. Particularly during the Victorian era, British fashions defined acceptable dress for men of business. Key figures such as Beau Brummell, the future Edward VII and Edward VIII created the modern suit and cemented its dominance. As such, it could be argued that the national costume of the British male is a three-piece suit, necktie and bowler hat – an image regularly used by cartoonists as a caricature of Britishness. Cuisine The Sunday roast consisting of roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding. Fish and chips.
Although highly-regarded in the Middle Ages, English cuisine later became a source of fun among Britain’s French and European neighbours, being viewed until the late twentieth century as crude and unsophisticated by comparison with continental tastes. However, with the influx of non-European immigrants (particularly those of south and east Asian origins) from the 1950s onwards, the English diet was transformed. Indian and Chinese cuisine in particular were absorbed into English culinary life. Restaurants and takeaways appeared in almost every town in England, and “going for an Indian” became a regular part of English social life. A distinct hybrid food style composed of dishes of Asian origin, but adapted to British tastes, emerged and was subsequently exported to other parts of the world. Many of the well-known Indian dishes, such as Tikka Masala and Balti, are in fact Anglo-Indian dishes of this sort. Chicken Tikka Masala is often jokingly referred to as England’s national dish, in a reference both to its English origins and to its enormous popularity.
Dishes forming part of the old tradition of English food include: Apple pie, bangers and mash, bubble and squeak, cornish pasty, cottage pie, egg salad, fish and chips, full English breakfast, gravy, jellied eels, Lancashire hotpot, Lincolnshire sausage, mince pies, pie and mash, pork pie, shepherd’s pie, spotted Dick, steak and kidney pie, Sunday roast, toad in the hole, and Yorkshire pudding. Engineering and innovation Engraving after Enoch Seeman’s 1726 portrait of Sir Isaac Newton.
As birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges .
Other notable English figures in the fields of engineering and innovation include: Richard Arkwright, industrial spinning machine inventor; Charles Babbage, computer inventor (nineteenth century); Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web , http, html, and many of the other technologies on which the Web is based; James Blundell, a physician who performed the first blood transfusion; Hubert Cecil Booth, vacuum cleaner inventor; Edwin Beard Budding, lawnmower inventor; George Cayley, seat belt inventor; Christopher Cockerell, hovercraft inventor; John Dalton, pioneer of atomic theory ; James Dyson, dual cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner inventor; Thomas Fowler, thermosiphon inventor; Robert Hooke, who proposed Hooke’s law of elasticity; E. Purnell Hooley, Tarmacadam inventor; Isaac Newton , who defined universal gravitation, Newtonian mechanics, infinitesimal calculus; Stephen Perry, rubber band inventor; Percy Shaw, “cat’s eye” road safety device inventor; George and Robert Stephenson, (father and son) railway pioneers; Joseph Swan light bulb developer; Richard Trevithick, builder of the earliest steam locomotive ; Alan Turing and Tommy Flowers, inventors of the modern computer and its associated concepts and technologies; Frank Whittle jet engine inventor; and Joseph Whitworth,inventor of numerous modern techniques and technologies of precision engineering. Folklore A bronze Arthur plate armor with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armor (early fifteenth century) by Peter Vischer.
Many of the England’s oldest legends share themes and sources with the Celtic folklore of Wales, Scotland and Ireland , a typical example being the legend of Herne the Hunter, which shares many similarities with the traditional Welsh legend of Gwyn ap Nudd. Successive waves of pre-Norman invaders and settlers, from the Romans onwards, via Saxons, Jutes, Angles, Norse, to the Norman Conquest, have all influenced the myths and legends of England. Some tales, such as that of The Lambton Wyrm show a distinct Norse influence, while others, particularly some of the events and characters associated with the Arthurian legends show a distinct Romano-gaulic slant.
The most famous body of English folk-tales concerns the legends of King Arthur , although it would be wrong to regard these stories as purely English in origin as they also concern Wales and, to a lesser extent, Ireland and Scotland. They should therefore be considered as part of the folklore of the British Isles as a whole. Post-Norman stories include the tales of Robin Hood , which exist in many forms, and stories of other folk heroes such as Hereward The Wake, and Dunn of Cumbria who, although being based on historical characters, have grown to become legends in their own right. There are historical figures (such as Sir Francis Drake and “Drake’s Drum”) who have legends associated with them. Literature Chaucer: Illustration from Cassell’s History of England, c. 1902.

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Andhra Pradesh

2,294,610 Government and politics
Andhra Pradesh has a Legislative Assembly of 294 seats. The state has sixty members in the Parliament of India; eighteen in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House and forty two in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House. [6]
Indian National Congress (INC) Party had had the majority in Andhra Pradesh until 1982. Kasu Brahmananda Reddy held the record for the longest serving chief minister, broken by N.T. Rama Rao in 1983. P.V. Narasimha Rao also served as the chief minister of the state, serving as the Prime Minister of India in 1991. Notable chief ministers of the state include Tanguturi Prakasam, CM for only the Andhra state. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy. Others include Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, Marri Chenna Reddy, Jalagam Vengal Rao, Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy, Nadella Bhaskara Rao, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, N.T. Rama Rao, Nara Chandrababu Naidu, and Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy.
In 1983, Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N.T. Rama Rao became the chief minister of the state. That marked the first time another party broke the single party monopoly of the INC on Andhra Pradesh’s politics. After few months, Nadendla Bhaskar Rao attempted a hijack while Rao received mediation treatment in the United States . Upon his return, Rao successfully called for a dissolution the Assembly and a new election. The Telugu Desam Party won the elections with a large majority and Rao regained his position as Chief Minister of the State. Rao inaugurated government investment in education, rural development and prosecuting corrupt government officials.
In 1989, the seven year rule of N.T. Rama Rao ended when Indian National Congress Party’s Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy won election to Chief Minister. N. Janardhan Reddy and Kotla Vijaya Bhasker Reddy followed him. In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to Telugu Desam Party again, with N.T. Rama Rao becoming the chief minister again. Rao died of heart attack while in office. Telugu Desam Party’s Chandrababu Naidu, the ex-finance minister, won a second term before suffering defeat the Indian National Congress led coalition, May 2004.
Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy of Indian National Congress, became Chief Minister of state after May 2004. Rajasekhara Reddy fought the 2004 Assembly elections in an alliance with the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), formed by the politician Chandrasekhar Rao who aimed to form a separate state. History
The Sanskrit epics Aitareya Brahmana and Mahabharata mention Andhra Kingdom. Inscriptions point to a kingdom in coastal Andhra ruled by Kuberaka, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as his capital, in the fifth century B.C.E. That may have been the oldest known kingdom in Southern India. Around the same time Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present day Amaravati) appears to have been important place. According to Taranatha: “On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of ‘The Glorious Lunar Mansions’ ( Kalachakra ).” [7] The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in fourth century B.C.E.
With the fall of the Mauryan Empire , Andhra Satavahanas became independent in third century B.C.E. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 C.E. , Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Vishnukundinas, Ananda Gotrikas and Cholas ruled the Telugu land. Eastern Chalukyas ruled a length after the decline of Vishnukundinas from their capital in Vengi. As early as first century C.E. , sources mention The Telugu people as vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under Ikshvakus.
The battle of Palnadu weakened Chalukyan power, opening the way for the emergence of the Kakatiyadynasty in the twelfth and the thirteenth centuries C.E. The Kakatiyas became feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani, ruling over a small territory near Warangal. In 1323 C.E. , Delhi Sultan Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and capture Warangal. They took King Pratap Rudra prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate , ruling for fifty years.
Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, founded the Vijayanagar empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India . [8] In 1347 C.E. , Alla-ud-din Hasan Gangu established an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani kingdom, in south India as a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.
In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually that region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam had ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the Princely state of Hyderabad , acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy.
India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to retain his independence from India , but the people of the region launched a movement to join Indian Union. The Republic of India forced his state of Hyderabad to become part India as Hyderabad State in 1948, after Indian Military Occupation. In an effort to gain an independent state, and protect the interests of the Telugu people of Madras State, Amarajeevi Potti Sriramulu fasted until death. Public outcry and civil unrest after his death forced the government to announce the formation of a new state for Telugu speakers. Andhra attained statehood in October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital. On November 1, 1956, Andhra State merged with the Telangana region of Hyderabad State to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, became the capital of the new state Andhra Pradesh. Culture Cultural institutions
Andhra Pradesh has many museums, including the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, the Visakha Museum in Vizag (Visakhapatnam), which displays the history of the pre-Independence Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow and Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada, which has a nice collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery, and inscriptions. Cuisine
The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh has the reputation as the spiciest of all Indian cuisine . Many variations to the Andhra cuisine exist, depending on caste, geographical regions, and traditions. People especially enjoy the Pickles and chutneys, called pachchadi in Telugu in Andhra Pradesh with many varieties of pickles and chutneys unique to the state. Practically every vegetable, including tomatoes, brinjals , and roselle (Gongura) comprise chutneys. The mango pickle Aavakaaya represents the best known of the Andhra pickles.
Rice constitutes a staple food, typically boiled, eaten with curry, or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish called attu (pesarattu) or dosas. People prepare different masalas into a variety of strongly flavored dishes using Meat, vegetables , and greens. Muslims, who arrived in Telangana in the fourteenth century, influenced Hyderabadi cuisine. Much of the cuisine uses lamb, chicken, and fish, rich, and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee, as a primary ingredients. The biryani represents the most distinctive and popular of Hyderabadi dishes. Dance
The dance of Andra Pradesh has an ancient and proud history. Desi and Margi forms have folk dance forms like Perani, Prenkhana, Suddha Nartana, Carcari, Rasaka, Danda Rasaka, Shiva Priya, Kanduka Nartana, Bhandika Nrityam, Carana Nrityam, Chindu, Gondali, and Kolatam received treatment. The folk dance’s most popular forms are Tandava and Lasya, Natya and Nritta, Angi-kabhinaya, Caris, Sthanakas, Mandalas, Karnas, Angaharas, and Recakas. Among the local dance forms, desi nritya stands out. [9]
Although both men and women perform classical dance in Andhra, women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi stands as the state’s best-known classical dance forms of Andhra Pradesh. The various dance forms that existed through the states’ history include Chenchu Bhagotham, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, Dappu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Bonalu, Dhimsa, and Kolattam. Festivals Sankranthi, held statewide in January, a Telugu festival celebrating a successful harvest Deccan Festival, held in February in Hyderabad, celebrates Deccan culture Shivaratri, held statewide in February or March, during the blue moon. A Hindu festival celebrate Shiva, vast crowds of pilgrims visit Shiva temples at Sri Kalahasti, Amaravathi and Lepakshi Muharram, held in Hyderabad, February or March. A Shiite holy day honoring the martyrdom of Mohammed’s grandson Ugadi, Telugu New Year, held state wide in March Mahankali Jatra, statewide in June or July, a Hindu festival honoring Kali Mrigasira, Hyderabad, June or July, at the start of monsoon season Bathukamma celebrated during September or October in Hyderbad. Celebrated by women in celebration of womanhood. The goddess Batakamma is worshiped Brahmotsavam, Tirumala, September or October, a Hindu festival inaugurated by Brahman; Venkateshwara temple especially decorated for the nine day festival Lumbini Festival, Hyderabad, in December, honors Buddhist heritage in Andhra Pradesh Literature
Sanskrit literature and Hindu scriptures highly influenced Telugu literature. Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity that translated the great epic Mahabharatha into Telugu. Bammera Potana, another renown poet from Orugallu (Now Warangal), became famous for his great classic Sri Madandhra Maha Bhagavatamu , a Telugu translation of ‘Sri Bhagavatham’ authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit . Nannayya derived the present Telugu script (lipi) from the old Telugu-Kannada script. Emperor Krishna Deva Raya wrote Amuktamalyada and also made the famous statement: “Desa Bhashalandu Telugu lessa.” Philosophical poems by Yogi-Vemana have become famous. Modern writers include Jnanpith Award winners Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. Revolutionary poets like SriSri and Gaddar have won a wide popular following.
Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah stands as the first Deewan Shayar of Urdu Literary History. Makhdoom Mohiuddin has been regarded as revolutionary poet. Many classical writers have been prolific, like Wali Mohammed Wali Dakhni, Amjad Hyderabadi, Charagh Hyderabadi, Aqeel Hashmi, Suleman Athhar Javed, Aslam Farshori, Ahmadnisar, Barq Kadapavi, and Qamar Ameeni. Music
The state has a rich musical heritage. Legends of the Carnatic music (that started during Vijayanagara Dynasty’s Sri Krishna Deva Raya) Trinity – Thyagaraja have Telugu roots. Other well-known composers include Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadasu. Telugu film (called Tollywood) music has increased in popularity. Folk songs have traditionally been popular in the rural belt. State symbols Krishna jinka, the state animal State language—Telugu State song—Maa telugu thalliki by Sankarambadi Sundarachari State animal—Blackbuck, (Krishna Jinka) State bird—Indian Roller, (Paala Pitta) State tree—Neem (Vepa) State sport—Kabaddi, in Telugu Chedugudu State dance—Kuchipudi, Andhra Natyam State flower—Water lily Education Indian school of business
More than twenty universities serve Andhra Pradesh. They offer a wide array of programs in the arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary science. Graduate programs conduct research in most major areas.
Andhra Pradesh has 1330 arts, science, and commerce colleges, 238 engineering colleges, and 53 medical colleges. The student to teacher ratio stands at 19:1 in the higher education. According to census taken in 2001, Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 60.5 percent. While male literacy rate hits a high water mark of 70.3 percent, the female literacy rate has attained a lesser 50.4 percent.
The state has recently focused on creating several institutes of high quality. International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) and Indian School of Business (ISB) have been gaining international recognition for the quality of their programs. National Institute of Fashion Technology, Hyderabad (NIFT) has earned a top reputation among those seeking in a career in fashion. Among the most outstanding universities in Andhra Pradesh: National Institute of Technology NIT and the University of Hyderabad. Historical and nature sites
Andhra Pradesh hosts numerous religious pilgrim centers. Tirupati, the abode of Lord Venkateswara, stands as most visited religious center in India. Srisailam, the abode of Sri Mallikarjuna, numbers among twelve Jyothirlingalu in India, Amaravati’s Siva temple represents one of the Pancharamams, and Yadagirigutta, the abode of an avatara of Vishnu, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal have won fame for fine temple carvings. The state has Buddhist centers at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Bhattiprolu, Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Sankaram, Phanigiri, and Kolanpaka.
The golden sand beaches at Visakhapatnam, the one million year old limestone caves at Borra, picturesque Araku Valley, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari racing through a narrow gorge at Papi Kondalu, waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala, and rich bio-diversity at Talakona, constitute some of the natural attractions of the state.
The Borra Caves sit in the Anatagiri Hills of Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh State in India. Famous for stalactite and stalagmite formations, the caves nestle into hills at a height of 800 to 1300 meters above Mean Sea Level. William King George, a British geologist, discovered them in the year 1807. The caves get their name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the human brain, borra in Telugu. Similarly, erosion in limestone deposit in the area by Chitravati River millions of years ago formed the Belum caves. Those limestone caves formed from the action of carbonic acid—or weakly acidic groundwater. The groundwater formed from the reaction between limestone and water. Belum Caves
Belum Caves, the second largest cave in Indian sub-continent and the longest caves in plains of Indian Subcontinent, derives its name from the Sanskrit word, “Bilum,” for caves, Belum Guhalu in Telugu. Belum Caves measures 3229 meters in length, making it the second largest natural caves in Indian Subcontinent. Belum Caves have long passages, spacious chambers, fresh water galleries and siphons. The caves reach its deepest point (120 feet from entrance level) at the point known as Patalganaga.
Horsley Hills, a famous summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh about 160 km from Bangalore, India and 144 km from Tirupati, sits at an elevation of 1,265 m. The town of Madanapalle lies nearby. Major tourist attractions include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi valley school. Horsely Hills serves as the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary 87 km distance. Horsley Hills had been named after a British officer named W.D. Horsley, the Collector of Cuddapah district, who chose that spot for his summer residence. Dense growths of eucalyptus, jacaranda, allamanda, and gulmohar trees line the narrow road to Horsely Hills.
Charminar, Golconda Fort, Chandragiri Fort, Chowmahalla Palace and Falaknuma Palace number among the important historical sites in the state. Transport Major road links of Andhra Pradesh
Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi International), Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada (Gannavaram), Rajahmundry (Madhurapudi), and Tirupati (Renigunta) constitute the Six airports in the state. Government also have plans to start airports in six other cities including Nellore, Warangal, Kadapa, Tadepalligudem, Ramagundam, and Ongole.
The government of Andhra Pradesh operates the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC), the major public transport corporation connecting all the cities and villages. APSRTC also has the distinction of being in the Guinness book of World records for having the largest fleet of vehicles, and the longest area covered/commuted daily. Apart from those, thousands of private operators run buses connecting major cities and towns of the state. Private vehicles like auto rickshaws occupy a major share of the local transport in the cities and adjoining villages.
Andhra Pradesh also has two of the major ports of India at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada and two minor ports Machilipatnam and Krishnapatnam. See also History of India Notes ↑ S.S. Ramachandra Murthy, A Study of Telugu Place Names: Based on Inscriptions from the Earliest to the 13th Century (Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan, 1985), p. 10.

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3 Bedroom Apartment / Flat for sale in Mulund West, Mumbai

PropertyWala.com 3 Bedroom Apartment / Flat for sale in Mulund West, Mumbai 2.5 – 5 crores Residential Apartment for Sale in Runwal Greens, Mulund West Mulund Goregaon Link Road, Mulund West, Mulund West, Mumbai – 400080 (Maharashtra) Area: 1300 SqFeet Total Floors: More than 20 Facing: North East Age Of Construction: 4 Years Possession: Immediate/Ready to move Build Up Area: 1300 sqft Carpet Area: 925 sqft Property Age: 1 to 5 yrs Old Property Features
Don’t forget to mention that you saw this ad on PropertyWala.com, when you call. Features PVR Cinemas Nirmal Lifestyle Mall (<2km), Davakhar Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. (<7km), Helipad filmcity (<8km), Reliance Media Works 2 (<9km), Cinema star (<10km), Chandu Halwai Airoli c/o DMart (<7km), Ribbons and Balloons (<3km), Love and Cheesecake Hiranandani Gardens, Monginis Cake Shop (<0.5km), Yummy Cakes India – Mumbai (<9km), The Campus Hub (<7km), Dr Sankpals Dental Centre (<8km), Smile Speak Dental Clinic and Implant Centre (<7km), goodhealthclinic (<2km), Shaligram Ajit – Dr Shaligram Avinash (<7km), Dr. Karve, Smile Centre Dental Clinic Bhandup (<3km), Sabka dentist – Powai (<7km) Reliance Corporate Park Helipad No. 1 (<10km), Reliance Corporate Park Helipad No.2 (<11km), Reliance Corporate Park Helipad No.3 (<11km), Helper (<12km), Explore The World Travel Academy Kausa (<12km), DAKC Helipad (<12km), Reliance Corporate Park – Helipad (<11km) Offices Swatantryaveer Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Sabhagruh (<11km), Martand Hall (<11km), Vanita Mahila Mandal Hall (<12km), Vashi Agiary And Dr Mehroo Hansotia Memorial Hall (<13km) Shopping Life Style Family Shop (<3km), Shreeji Supermarket (<3km), 9 Nine Convenience Store (<3km), The Loot Mart (<6km), Powai Pan Beedi Shop (<10km), Chenna Ram General Stores (<11km), Light General Store (<11km), Jay Bharat General Stores (<13km), Mamta Provision & General Stores (<13km), Kb Standard Chartered Thane Branch (<11km), IDBI Bank (<14km), Union Bank of India ATM (<8km), Standard Chartered (<8km), IDBI Bank ATM Mulund West (<3km), State Bank ATM (<10km), The Saraswat Co-operative Bank Limited ATM (<2km), Axis Bank ATM (<3km), Bank of Baroda ATM (<2km), HDFC Bank ATM (<2km), Kotak Mahindra Bank ATM (<7km) Religious Places The Church at Powai (<8km), Our Lady Of Mercy Church (<9km), New Life Fellowship Church (<7km), Our Lady of Fatima Church (<10km), St. Pius X Church (<1km), Infant Jesus Church (<7km), Laymen Evangelical Fellowship Church (<9km), Amalamatha Church (<3km), Living Way A.G. Church (<2km), St.Mary, St. Paul’s Orthodox Syrian Church Powai (<7km), St. Joseph’s Church (<7km), Kingdom Hall of Jehovah Smt. Sulochanadevi Singhania School (<8km), Vidya Prasarak Mandal School (<1km), Transcendental Meditation Center (<7km), Petrochem Middle East India Private Limited (<13km), Art of Living (<9km), Little Flower High School (<9km), Bombay Scottish School (<10km), Kendriya Vidyalaya IIT Powai (<7km), New Horizon Scholars School and Neo kids (<6km), St Xavier, Sri Sri Ravishankar Vidya Mandir Mulund, EuroKids Pre-School (<9km), Sheth Karamshi Kanji English School (<2km), Prime Academy (<11km), Renaissance Mumbai Convention Centre Hotel (<8km), Keys Select Hotel Nestor (<12km), Hotel Satkar Residency (<8km), The Residence Hotel & Apartments (<8km), The Caliph Hotel (<10km), Ginger Hotel Mumbai (Mahakali) (<13km), Anjali Residency (<12km), Ramada by Wyndham Powai Hotel & Convention Centre (<8km), The Leela Mumbai (<14km), Country Inn & Suites by Radisson Navi Mumbai (<12km), Hotel Suncity Residency (<13km), Rodas An Ecotel Hotel (<8km), Kohinoor Continental (<14km) Price Trends Mulund West, Mumbai Apartments / Flats for sale in Mulund West, Mumbai This property is priced approximately same as the average for an Apartments / Flats for sale in Mulund West, Mumbai (Rs.19734/SqFeet) * Disclaimer: Data may be approximate. Locality Reviews Mulund West, Mumbai Mulund is green belt of Mumbai main population of Mulund west is Gujrati then sindhi & PunjabiIn Mulund east mostly Marathi, Mulund is full of all brand of restaurantYou get more variety of Gujrati food in Mulund temperature of mulund is also low then Mumbai Pros: Mar 2 by Arjun Khanchandani Mulund West is planned layout with each plot faces well maintained roads . There is no water shortage. Thousands of trees across roads make Mulund West a free city. Well mannered and cultured residents has contributed a lot in development of present Mulund West. Residents are peace loving people and hence preferred area in central suburbs. It is queen of central suburbs. Pros: Well planned and well maintained roads Cons: Jan 14 by Arvind kumar Mulund West is a well planned city which has a lot of free neet and patal kel road. It's highly impossible for a person to get lost. Well connected to western, south, north, and Navi Mumbai . One can call it a center point. Pros: All points above are good Posted: Apr 28, 2017 by Nitin Deshpande Very well developed place of mumbai , less crowded, luxurious places and very good locality . The best friendly locality of mumbai . Many good construction works sre csrried out here with spacious rooms ans good view. Pros: Mar 21, 2017 by Kamal Narwani Good location, near Mumbai , has very good facilities. School, collages and offices are located very near, Pros: Good location in living as well as investment Posted: Jul 15, 2014 by Anil Mulund west is very popular Residential locality of central Mumbai suburbs, surrounded by posh residential developments such as Nirmal lifestyle, City of joy, Runwal tower and many more.It is a prime locality from where all places of Mumbai can be reached easily, and enjoys excellent connectivity with EE Highway, WE Highway, Powai , Vikhroli, Kanjurmarg etc. Pros: Mumbai 's best suburb, located on foothills with lots of greenery & serene surroundings, blend in vicinity of commercial, industrial & residential surroundings. Friendly people & everything available easily nearby. Clean & healthy environ. Pros: No water or electricity problems Good road network, well connected with entire Mumbai Serenity, nature & brisk activity perfectly blended Cons: by Ashok Gangwani (Property King Dehradun) Mulund is the earliest planned suburb of Mumbai city, which extends from present day Mulund station to Paanch Rasta junction in Mulund (West). Mulund comes under the Central line of railway. If you go through any Central line Mulund has the hottest property to live in. Mulund was a home to a cosmopolitan mix of large number of educated middle class residents and several industrial factories along present day L.B.S. road.Mulund today has become more densely populated than what it used to be, it still remains one of the greenest and safest places to live in Mumbai. The pleasant living conditions and easy access to different parts of the city and its outskirts, have attracted many new residents.Also Mulund is a well connected suburb in all directions. Mulund has several educational institutes in both English and Regional language mediums. Mulund has two large shopping malls on LBS Marg , Nirmal Lifestyles and R-Mall. and really one of the few suburbs of Mumbai to boast of a vibrant night life. The center of it all lies within Nirmal Lifestyles mall, near Nahur . Several western cuisine restaurants, along with some Indian restaurants are located within the mall, and it also has two nightclubs. Overall, the night life in Mulund has a sober and peaceful feel to it, except for some people who have too much to drink.Real Estate prices are hiked day by day in Mulund according to the demand. Safe for residential purpose all the time as compared to other suburbs.Panchrasta, Tambe Nagar, Sarvodaya Nagar , Aasha Nagar, Yogi Hill, Vardhaman Nagar, Veena Nagar , Vaishali Nagar , Model Towen, Swapna Nagari, Kalpa Nagari, Yogi Hill, Mulund Colony are few important places. Mulund is one of the posh built-up areas in North-East part of Mumbai. There is an easy access to Eastern Express Highway and Navi Mumbai through Mulund-Airoli Bridge. Pros: Mulund is perfect location for Residential purpose as compared to other suburbs. The biggest shopping mall in India, that is Nirmal LifeStyle, is located in Mulund. As people over there worship God, Allah, Bhagwan, so there are many Temples, Churches and Mosques. Posted:

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Culture of England

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Many of the most important figures in the history of modern western scientific and philosophical thought were either born in, or at one time or other resided in, England. Major English thinkers of international significance include scientists such as Sir Isaac Newton , Francis Bacon , Charles Darwin and New Zealand-born Ernest Rutherford , philosophers such as John Locke , John Stuart Mill , Bertrand Russell , and Thomas Hobbes , and economists such as David Ricardo , and John Maynard Keynes . The British Airways London Eye. Architecture The dome of St Paul’s Cathedral designed by Sir Christopher Wren. Terraced houses are typical in inner cities and places of high population density The Grand Canal, Venice by J. M. W. Turner, painted 1835. Thomas Gainsborough’s Blue boy , painted 1770. Salisbury Cathedral by John Constable, c.1825. A Beefeater in everyday undress uniform Morris dancing in the grounds of Wells Cathedral, Wells, England – Exeter Morris Men
The earliest remnants of architecture in the United Kingdom are mainly Neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury , and Roman ruins such as the spa in Bath. Many castles remain from the medieval period and in most towns and villages the parish church is an indication of the age of the settlement, built as they were from stone rather than the traditional wattle and daub.
Over the two centuries following the Norman conquest of 1066, and the building of the Tower of London, many great castles such as Caernarfon Castle in Wales and Carrickfergus Castle in Ireland were built to suppress the natives. Windsor Castle is the largest inhabited castle in the world and the oldest in continuous occupation. Large houses continued to be fortified until the Tudor period, when the first of the large gracious unfortified mansions such as the Elizabethan Montacute House and Hatfield House were built.
The English Civil War (1642-1649) proved to be the last time in British history that houses had to survive a siege. Corfe Castle was destroyed following an attack by Oliver Cromwell ‘s army, but Compton Wynyates survived a similar ordeal. Inigo Jones, from just before the Civil War, and who is regarded as the first significant British architect, was responsible for importing Palladian architecture to Britain from Italy . The Queen’s House at Greenwich is perhaps his best surviving work.
Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, one of the best-known British architects, Sir Christopher Wren , was employed to design and rebuild many of the ruined ancient churches of London, although his master plan for rebuilding London as a whole was rejected. It was in this period that he designed the building that he is perhaps best known for, St Paul’s Cathedral.
In the early eighteenth century baroque architecture—popular in Europe—was introduced, and Blenheim Palace was built. However, baroque was quickly replaced by a return of the Palladian form. The Georgian architecture of the eighteenth century was an evolved form of Palladianism. Many existing buildings such as Woburn Abbey and Kedleston Hall are in this style. Among the many architects of this form of architecture and its successors, neoclassicism and Romanticism , were Robert Adam , Sir William Chambers, and James Wyatt.
In the early nineteenth century the romantic medieval gothic style appeared as a backlash to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the nineteenth century, as a result of new technology, construction incorporated steel. One of the greatest exponents of this was Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace. Paxton also continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular retrospective English Renaissance styles. In this era of prosperity and development British architecture embraced many new methods of construction, but ironically in style, such architects as August Pugin ensured it remained firmly in the past.
At the beginning of the twentieth century a new form of design—arts and crafts—became popular. The architectural form of this style, which had evolved from the nineteenth century designs of such architects as George Devey, was championed by Edwin Lutyens. Arts and crafts in architecture is symbolized by an informal, non-symmetrical form, often with mullioned or lattice windows, multiple gables and tall chimneys. This style continued to evolve until World War II .
Following the Second World War reconstruction went through a variety of phases, but was heavily influenced by Modernism , especially from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. Many bleak town center redevelopments—criticized for featuring hostile, concrete-lined “windswept plazas”—were the fruit of this interest, as were many equally bleak public buildings, such as the Hayward Gallery. Many Modernist-inspired town centers are today in the process of being redeveloped.
In the immediate post-war years, perhaps hundreds of thousands of council houses in vernacular style were built, giving working class people their first experience of private gardens and indoor sanitation.
Modernism remains a significant force in English architecture, although its influence is felt predominantly in commercial buildings. The two most prominent proponents are Lord Rogers of Riverside, who created Rogers’ the iconic London Lloyd’s Building and the Millennium Dome, and Lord Foster of Thames Bank, who created the Swiss Re Buildings (also known as “The Gherkin”) and the City Hall (London).
Since England has one of the highest population densities in Europe, housing tends to be smaller and more closely packed, particularly compared to North America. The British have a particular affinity with the terraced house, dating back to the aftermath of the Great Fire of London. The majority of surviving housing built before 1914 is of this type, and consequently it dominates inner residential areas. In the twentieth century the process of suburbanization led to a spread of semi-detached and detached housing. In the aftermath of the Second World War , public housing was dramatically expanded to create a large number of council estates, although most units in these have since been bought by their tenants. Art
The oldest art in the United Kingdom can be dated to the Neolithic period, and is found in a funerary context. But it is in the Bronze age that the first innovative artworks are found. The Beaker people, who arrived in Britain around 2500 B.C.E. , were skilled in metal refining, working at first in copper , but later bronze and gold . The Wessex culture excelled in making gold ornaments. Works of art placed in graves or sacrificial pits have survived.
In the Iron Age, the Celts made gold ornaments, but stone and most likely wood was also used. This style continued into the Roman period, and would find a renaissance in the Medieval period. It also survived in the Celtic areas not occupied by the Romans, largely corresponding to the present-day Wales and Scotland .
The Romans brought with them the classical style, glasswork and mosaics. Christian art from the fourth century, has been preserved in mosaics with Christian symbols and pictures. Celtic and Scandinavian art have in common the use of intricate, intertwined patterns of decoration.
Anglo-Saxon sculpting was outstanding for its time in the eleventh century, as proved by pre-Norman ivory carvings. Celtic high crosses show the use of Celtic patterns in Christian art. Scenes from the Bible were depicted, framed with the ancient patterns. Some ancient symbols were redefined. Murals were painted on the white-chalked walls of stone churches, and stained glass was used in church and other windows.
As a reaction to abstract expressionism , pop art emerged originally in England at the end of the 1950s.
Significant figures in English art include William Blake , William Hogarth , J.M.W. Turner , and John Constable in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Twentieth century artists included Francis Bacon , David Hockney, Bridget Riley, and the pop artists Richard Hamilton, and Peter Blake. New York-born Sir Jacob Epstein was a pioneer of modern sculpture . More recently, the so-called Young British Artists have gained some notoriety, particularly Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin. Notable illustrators include Aubrey Beardsley, Roger Hargreaves, and Beatrix Potter .
England is home to the National Gallery, Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool, Tate St. Ives, and the Tate Modern. Cinema
England has been influential in the technological , commercial, and artistic development of cinema and probably second only to the United States in producing the greatest quantity of world-wide film stars. Despite a history of successful productions, the industry is characterized by an ongoing debate about its identity (including economic and cultural issues) and the influences of American and European cinema, although it is fair to say a brief “golden age” was enjoyed in the 1940s from the studios of J. Arthur Rank and Korda.
Modern cinema is generally regarded as descending from the work of the French Lumière brothers in 1892, and their show first came to London in 1896. However, the first moving pictures developed on celluloid film were made in Hyde Park, London in 1889 by William Friese Greene, a British inventor, who patented the process in 1890. The film is the first known instance of a projected moving image. The first people to build and run a working 35 mm camera in Britain were Robert W. Paul and Birt Acres. They made the first British film Incident at Clovelly Cottage in February 1895, shortly before falling out over the camera’s patent. Clothing
There is no specifically British national costume. In England, certain military uniforms such as the Beefeater or the Queen’s Guard are considered to be symbolic of Englishness, though they are not official national costumes. Morris dancers or the costumes for the traditional English May dance are cited by some as examples of traditional English costume.
This is in large part due to the critical role that British sensibilities have played in world clothing since the eighteenth century. Particularly during the Victorian era , British fashions defined acceptable dress for men of business. Key figures such as Beau Brummell, the future Edward VII and Edward VIII created the modern suit and cemented its dominance. As such, it could be argued that the national costume of the British male is a three-piece suit, necktie and bowler hat—an image regularly used by cartoonists as a caricature of Britishness. Cuisine The Sunday roast consisting of roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding. Fish and chips.
Although highly-regarded in the Middle Ages, English cuisine later became a source of fun among Britain’s French and European neighbors, being viewed until the late twentieth century as crude and unsophisticated by comparison with continental tastes. However, with the influx of non-European immigrants (particularly those of south and east Asian origins) from the 1950s onwards, the English diet was transformed. Indian and Chinese cuisine in particular were absorbed into English culinary life. Restaurants and takeaways appeared in almost every town in England, and “going for an Indian” became a regular part of English social life. A distinct hybrid food style composed of dishes of Asian origin, but adapted to British tastes, emerged and was subsequently exported to other parts of the world. Many of the well-known Indian dishes, such as Tikka Masala and Balti, are in fact Anglo-Indian dishes of this sort. Chicken Tikka Masala is often jokingly referred to as England’s national dish, in a reference both to its English origins and to its enormous popularity.
Dishes forming part of the old tradition of English food include: Apple pie, bangers and mash, bubble and squeak, cornish pasty, cottage pie, egg salad, fish and chips, full English breakfast, gravy, jellied eels, Lancashire hotpot, Lincolnshire sausage, mince pies, pie and mash, pork pie, shepherd’s pie, spotted Dick, steak and kidney pie, Sunday roast, toad in the hole, and Yorkshire pudding. Engineering and innovation Engraving after Enoch Seeman’s 1726 portrait of Sir Isaac Newton.
As birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges .
Other notable English figures in the fields of engineering and innovation include: Richard Arkwright, industrial spinning machine inventor; Charles Babbage, computer inventor (nineteenth century); Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web , http, html, and many of the other technologies on which the Web is based; James Blundell, a physician who performed the first blood transfusion; Hubert Cecil Booth, vacuum cleaner inventor; Edwin Beard Budding, lawnmower inventor; George Cayley, seat belt inventor; Christopher Cockerell, hovercraft inventor; John Dalton, pioneer of atomic theory ; James Dyson, dual cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner inventor; Thomas Fowler, thermosiphon inventor; Robert Hooke, who proposed Hooke’s law of elasticity; E. Purnell Hooley, Tarmacadam inventor; Isaac Newton , who defined universal gravitation, Newtonian mechanics, infinitesimal calculus; Stephen Perry, rubber band inventor; Percy Shaw, “cat’s eye” road safety device inventor; George and Robert Stephenson, (father and son) railway pioneers; Joseph Swan light bulb developer; Richard Trevithick, builder of the earliest steam locomotive ; Alan Turing and Tommy Flowers, inventors of the modern computer and its associated concepts and technologies; Frank Whittle jet engine inventor; and Joseph Whitworth, inventor of numerous modern techniques and technologies of precision engineering. Folklore A bronze Arthur plate armor with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armor (early fifteenth century) by Peter Vischer.
Many of the England’s oldest legends share themes and sources with the Celtic folklore of Wales, Scotland and Ireland , a typical example being the legend of Herne the Hunter, which shares many similarities with the traditional Welsh legend of Gwyn ap Nudd. Successive waves of pre-Norman invaders and settlers, from the Romans onwards, via Saxons, Jutes, Angles, Norse, to the Norman Conquest, have all influenced the myths and legends of England. Some tales, such as that of The Lambton Wyrm show a distinct Norse influence, while others, particularly some of the events and characters associated with the Arthurian legends show a distinct Romano-gaulic slant.
The most famous body of English folk-tales concerns the legends of King Arthur , although it would be wrong to regard these stories as purely English in origin as they also concern Wales and, to a lesser extent, Ireland , and Scotland . They should therefore be considered as part of the folklore of the British Isles as a whole. Post-Norman stories include the tales of Robin Hood , which exist in many forms, and stories of other folk heroes such as Hereward The Wake, and Dunn of Cumbria who, although being based on historical characters, have grown to become legends in their own right. There are historical figures (such as Sir Francis Drake and “Drake’s Drum”) who have legends associated with them. Heritage In recent years, Stonehenge has become a focus for modern summer solstice celebrations
Stonehenge is believed by many English people and foreigners alike to hold an iconic place in the culture of England. Other built structures such as cathedrals and parish churches are associated with a sense of traditional Englishness, as is often the palatial ‘stately home’; a notion established in part by English author Jane Austen ‘s work Pride and Prejudice. The English country house and the rural lifestyle forms an interest among many people as typified by visits to properties managed by English Heritage or the National Trust.
Landscape gardening as developed by Capability Brown set an international trend for the English garden. Gardening, and visiting gardens, are regarded as typically English pursuits, fueled somewhat by the perception of England as a nation of eccentric amateurs and autodidacts. In many, usually rural places, people gather for May Day festivals on the first of May to celebrate “the awakening of the flowers”—the beginning of summer. This traditionally involves the local schoolchildren skipping around a maypole—a large pole erected on the village green (historically a tree would have been specially cut down) – each carrying a colored ribbon, resulting in a multi-colored plaited pattern. The festival traditionally features Morris dancing and various festivities, culminating in the crowning of a ‘May Queen’—a pupil from the local school. Many regional variations of the festivals exist, including the Rochester Sweeps’ Festival and the “‘Obby ‘Oss” festival of Padstow, which is the oldest May Day festival still practiced today, dating back to the fourteenth century. Language Countries where English has official status or is widely spoken.
English people traditionally speak the English language, a member of the West Germanic language family. The modern English language evolved from Old English, with lexical influence from Norman- French , Latin, and Old Norse. Cornish, a Celtic language originating in Cornwall, is currently spoken by about 3,500 people. Historically, another Brythonic Celtic language, Cumbric, was spoken in Cumbria in North West England, but it died out in the eleventh century although traces of it can still be found in the Cumbrian dialect. Because of the nineteenth-century geopolitical dominance of the British Empire and the post- World War II hegemony of the United States , English has become the international language of business, science, communications, aviation, and diplomacy. English is the native language of roughly 350 million people worldwide, with another 1.5 billion people who speak it as a second language. Literature Chaucer: Illustration from Cassell’s History of England, circa 1902.

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Epic channel celebrates maharashtra day and gujarat day with a special programming line-up

Epic channel celebrates maharashtra day and gujarat day with a special programming line-up 26 Apr, 2019 – 12:52 PM
MUMBAI: Across the world, May 1 is celebrated as International Labour Day but the date is of special significance in India as the days when two of it’s most progressive states, Maharashtra and Gujarat celebrate, the day they achieved statehood. This year EPIC Channel – India Ka Apna Infotainment, known for its India centric content is taking the celebrations on-air, by showcasing unique stories from this region in a day-long curated programming line-up from 12pm -7pm.
Culturally diverse and picturesque states with unique culinary traditions, the programmes will explore little known and unique facets of these states.
The special line-up by EPIC Channel, will feature episodes of Sharanam where Juhi Chawla will take the viewers on a journey to, ‘Ganpatipule’ on the western coast of Maharashtra, the abode, according to popular belief, of a 400-year-old self-manifested idol of Lord Ganesha. An episode on ‘Sai Baba’ of Shirdi where the viewers will get a chance to understand the message and miracles of Sai Baba through the eyes of his devotees. Another episode will cover Mahalaxmi of Kolhapur who is eulogised as the reason for the prosperity of the city.
Kahi Suni showcasing episodes on ‘Madhavpur Ghed’ in Gujarat, which traces the mystic romance of Lord Krishna’s wedding with Rukmini. ‘Adalaj Vav’, which tells the tale of Rani Radubai and the formation of the beautiful Adalaj Stepwell.
No journey in India is complete without a chapter on food, Lost Recipes hosted by Aditya Bal, will take the audience on a journey of food which is diffused into the pages of history and the rediscovery of a tradition that once was. One of the episodes on ‘Mumbai’ will focus on its 2000-year-old East Indian community, and their mouth-watering cuisine. Another episode will be on ‘Udwada’ in Gujarat where the host discovers the forgotten recipes of 19th century that are a delightful amalgamation of Persian and Gujarati cultures and their flavours.
Viewers will get a chance to visit through the lens of history some of India’s most historic locations including Champner, Daulatabad, Murud, and Lakhpat through the show Ekaant.
Speaking about the special content line-up, Akul Tripathi, Content & Programming Head, EPIC Channel, said, “We have always believed in celebrating India and days that are special for the people and the country. Maharashtra and Gujarat are important weaves in the multi-coloured fabric of the country and their day of statehood is an opportunity to rejoice in the diversity of thought, culture, traditions, and histories and introduce them to the entire country. tags

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Top 10 Herbs and Spices for cooking and their Review 2019 DIY

Rosemary is a strong flavored, woody herb which works well with roast chicken and joints of meat, stews and soups. It is best used sparingly. 6. Cinnamon:
Cinnamon is a sweet, aromatic spice which is very popular in baking, especially in items such as apple pie and oatmeal cookies. It is also used in many Indian, Moroccan and Mexican dishes. 7. Paprika:
Paprika lends a burst of bright red color and a spicy burst of flavor to food. It is used in many Hungarian dishes, while also being popular in Spanish and Portuguese cuisines. 8. Cumin:
is a popular spice used mainly to add flavor and color to curries. It is used in Middle Eastern, Mediterranean and Asian cooking. 9. Coriander :
is a pleasantly sweet seed of the cilantro plant which has a lemony top note. It is commonly used in chili and curry dishes; it is used widely in many types of Latino, Middle Eastern, and Indian dishes. 10. Ginger:
Ginger is a very versatile spice. When used fresh, it can add a sweet, yet spicy note to stir-fries, curries and roasted meats. In dried, ground form, ginger is often added to bake goods, such as ginger snaps. More from my site

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Lemongrass: A Stalk to Remember

By Grace O Lemongrass: A Stalk to Remember
Lemongrass, a plant native to India and Southeast Asia, looks like stiff grass stalks (it really is a grass!), but it smells and tastes a bit like lemon or lime. The stalks, which can reach five feet in height, also grow in Australia, Africa, and the United States. The oil from lemongrass is used to scent soaps and bath products, as a potent antiseptic, and, when diluted and applied to the skin, to reduce acne. Lemongrass contains citral, which studies have shown induce cancer cells to self-destruct.
Lemongrass also contains vitamins A, B, and C, plus calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous. According to studies, it is a great antioxidant (one of our FoodTrient properties) with anti-fungal and antibacterial properties. Lemongrass has a long history in herbal medicine as a strong anti-inflammatory (another FoodTrient property). It is used in Ayurvedic medicine to detoxify, calm stomachs, reduce cholesterol, and lower blood pressure. You can find fresh lemongrass (a.k.a. lemon grass) at melissas.com and Indian and Asian markets. I’ve even seen frozen, chopped lemongrass in grocery stores. I’ve also discovered lemongrass puree in a tube made by Gourmet Garden .
I love to cook with lemongrass. It adds a wonderful perfume and zingy flavor to both savory and sweet dishes. It pairs particularly well with coconut milk, ginger, red chiles, chicken, and seafood. Use the white, more tender section of the stalk in recipes where it remains in the final dish. If you’re just steeping the stalk, as in my tea recipe below, you can use all of it, including the tougher green part.
In Thailand, lemongrass is added to seafood soups. It’s the star of Tom Yum Soup, a classic Thai dish made with chicken stock, garlic, Thai chili paste, fish sauce, shrimp, cilantro, palm sugar, and kaffir lime leaves. There are plenty of variations of this soup. For example, you can add coconut milk to the broth, noodles, or veggies like scallions, radishes, straw mushrooms, or even tomatoes.
Lemongrass is also popular in Vietnamese cuisine. In one classic recipe, thin beef slices are marinated (for 2 hours in the refrigerator) in a mixture of minced lemongrass, minced garlic, fish sauce, soy sauce, sugar, and vegetable oil and then cooked over tabletop charcoal grills.
I like to add a few tablespoons of minced lemongrass and a pinch of salt to the cooking water when I boil rice. For a fragrant, coconut-lemongrass rice, I substitute half of the water for light coconut milk. Is there any substitute for lemongrass? Lime zest and juice can impart a similar flavor in cooked foods, but you won’t get the same health benefits.
Lemongrass tea is another classic Southeast Asian staple. In my recipe, I pair lemongrass with natural, unprocessed honey because it, too, has antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Honey’s fructose content gives it fewer calories than cane or beet sugar, and the body tolerates it better. Honey also contains antioxidants and has been shown to be a natural cough remedy. The combination of honey and lemongrass makes a very tasty drink that not only helps you relax, it also helps heal whatever ails you. Healing Honey-Lemongrass Tea
1 stalk fresh lemongrass, chopped 1 cup hot water

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