Thank you for taking the time to provide us with your feedback.
We are delighted to learn that you had a comfortable stay with us at the Montana Hotel and we would like to thank you for your positive comments on our attentive service and central location.
Moreover, we are pleased to know that you enjoyed our Indian cuisine. Thank you for your compliments on the good quality of the food and brilliant service received by our staff.
However, we apologize whether the room was noisy.
We really appreciated your feedback and we hope to have the great pleasure to welcome you back in the future to assure you our best attention.
Top 5 Mughlai food
Mughlai food, the ravishing legacy of congenial aroma of rich spices, the succulent and enriching taste and a careful conjunction of diverse ingredients weaved well with the Indian style of cooking inherited from the Persian and Mughal rulers way back from the 16th century! So perfectly are these delicacies prepared by the Indians, that these are termed as Indian food across most of the globe. Do you know that amongst the 100 reasons of visiting India, food is the 14th in the list and most of these tourists and even locals term the Mughlai cuisine of India as their most favourite one! The rich savoury gravies with lavish dips of juicy meats, the bewitching smooth layers of kebabs, those buttery soft and luscious naans and not to forget the very famous and heartthrob of many foodies, the flavoursome, nectareous Biryani seems to be the reason of happiness for many. Mumbai, being one of the most exciting and progressive cities of the world, excelled in this talent too. The city that’s a hub of food fanatics has numerous food outlets, restaurants and dhabas that promise the best Mughlai food in Mumbai. But, are these all worthy of visiting? Are all of these the benchmark in quality of taste of the Mughlai cuisine that they promise? Well, after tasting from around 100 such outlets and restaurants, I have sorted the names of these five best Mughlai serving restaurants in Mumbai. These hidden gems of Mughlai food listed below can be terms as masters of Mughlai kitchen and serve some relishing dishes prepped up so well with the charismatic combination of spices and meats or veggies, that would leave your taste buds craving for some more after having these.
Please note- The places listed below aren’t listed according to any rankings. These 5 are equally well versed with their ingredients and cooking art, but definitely exceed most of the others accept them! Their inclusion in this list is after taking in to consideration the important factors like value for money, food presentation, hygiene, food quality and most of all, the explicit taste of the same. Biryani Guru
The most visited restaurant to savour real Mughlai taste straight from the kitchen at Navi Mumbai. An expert in serving authentic Mughlai food. The enticing taste of their food, the variety in menu that they offer and the manner in which each of their dish is different than the previous ones, attracts a retreating number of foodies to this place. From presentation to pricing everything is perfect here adding in to the enticing taste that I’m sure you wouldn’t have tasted before anywhere. Shorba at Biryani guru Tikka platter Picture credit- Biryani guru
Their authentic styled lamb soup will let you experience the true taste of it in the purest Mughal style. The tikkas barbequed up to perfection adding in just the precise amount of spices definitely tickles your taste senses the best way. Their gravies are extremely delicious made so well, you’ll be actually licking your fingers at the end of those naans you savoured them with. What can be called as the show stopper of this restaurant is their parda mutton Biryani! One of the first outlets to introduce the parda Biryani, its a exquisite blend of spices served with soft and piquant chunks of mutton/ chicken or vegetables and served under an edible veil that’s unveiled just at the time of serving you! Parda Biryani
Apart from these, their menu has some incredible specialisedMughlai dishes which are truly exceptional and Biryani guru just charges around 1000 INR for a couple. Charcoal eats
One of those outlets that can be termed as serving best Mughlai food in India. They have numerous branches across the country at Mumbai, Gurgaon, Bangalore, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Thane, Navi Mumbai, Pune, Nashik, Indore, Jaipur and Jamshedpur. For their food, it’s what we can wise serving of careful cooking. Their toothsome dishes are prepared absolutely without any preservatives and served fresh with their original luscious taste that’s so heavenly, it’s always a delight to consume food served by charcoal eats.
From the crispy dahi ke kebab to the tiny delights of softest chicken galouti kebabs, it’s just amazing! Galouti kebab- Pic crédit- charcoal eats Hari bhari kebab pic credit- Charcoal eats Chicken tikka pic credit- charcoal eats
The tikkas which are softest and juiciest to chew, the seekh which are absolutely tantalising and the stuffed parathas that can put anyone’s tummy to growls, are terrific to taste. Their biryani have that solid form of excellency in them that clings well with the taste to give you a treat of deliciousness. The afghani veg Biryani, butter chicken biryani the Awadhi chicken biryani and the ranges are innumerable! These present the wholesome blend of fresh and pleasant smelling spices accompanied well with the Biryani rice and the perfect dum that they need to get completed. Veg afghani Biryani pic credit- charcoal eats Dum Biryani pic credit- charcoal eats
Spread across 17 outlets in Mumbai ranging from Kemp’s corner to Thane, they deliver the yummy treats at your doorsteps in an intact packaging or you can even check in their various dine ins available at some of the places across Mumbai. All you need is just around 500 INR for a couple to enjoy the luscious taste of their exotic Mughlai or Indian food in Mumbai from charcoal eats . The Foodie Nawab!
Rejoicing the kingdom of Mughal rules, the foodie nawab has everything for the hungry for Nawabi cuisine foodies here! Bringing in a new addition in their already lip smacking menu, they are the most talked about Mughlai food serving people in Mumbai. One of the foodies favourites, they have got some smashing variants of Biryani enough to put any Biryani lover in a dilemma to choose from them. The lavish curries made from the richest source of ingredients and spices, the enthralling kebabs made in Nawabi style and the very endearing kulfi shake, you just couldn’t help but eat your diets out if you order food from them. White chicken curry pic credit- the foodie nawab Melted mango kulfi shake pic credit- the foodie nawab Melted pista kulfi shakes pic credit- the foodie nawab
Only a delivery outlet near CST area in Mumbai right now, they are very first people to bottle up our very nostalgic and childhood favourite kulfi in to a devine shake. Their melted pista kulfi shake, melted mango kulfi shake and some more awesome shakes like these would force you to gulp it down in a single sip. Baked cheese chicken Biryani pic credit- the foodie nawab Chicken biryani pic credit- the foodie nawab
Ranging from butter chicken to chicken bhuna, their succulent white chicken and chicken masala to dhabe ki dal fry , their gravies are extremely slurpy! The very first to introduce the ravenous baked chicken cheese Biryani which is loved by all and in quite a trends nowadays. The pahadi chicken biryani, the chicken Afghani malai tikka Biryani and dum chicken Biyani enriched with charcoal cooked chicken chunks along with spices and aromatic rice, just perfect for a Biryani lover like us! Queen sized meal boxes pic credit- the foodie nawab
Opt for their queen size combinations variants that serves your choice of gravy with Parathas and a huge serving of tasty Biryani of your choice. Sending in all these in a totally unique and appealing packaging but intact too, The foodie nawab serves exotic Mughlai food for just 500 INR for a couple. ZAS Kitchens
When you’re craving for Mughal food that’s so authentic that you actually feel relishing Persian flavours and love the homely feel of it, try ordering from ZAS Kitchens. One of the prime Mughal food destinations amidst our favourite food hub, Mohammed ali road, they are an all rounder in delivering perfectly packed wholesome food boxes containing of some out of the world Kebabs, filling rolls, gratifying Biryani and lush desserts. While their individual Mughal dishes are bringing in a big fame from areas wide and near, their special tiffin and meal boxes are gripping the working foodies as well. Tikkas pic credit- ZAS KITCHENS Tikka and Biryani pic credit- ZAS Kitchens Malai chicken rolls pic credit- ZAS Kitchens
More profoundly known for their exquisite vegetarian meal boxes for corporates and offices, they even expertise in serving huge party orders with their piquant veg and non vegetarian delicacies. For once if you relish their dainty tikkas enticed with perfect species, their mutton dum Biryani with softest chunks of mutton’s done well in the purely Mughal tasting Biryani, their very delicious chicken seekh Biryani that leaves you craving for some more and those generously filled chicken and cheese kebabs, I’m sure you’re not going to forget the lingering taste on your tongue for days. What’s more, people are actually loving their ecstatic tasting food and hence their meal boxes one of the largest tiffin box services in South Mumbai right now. Vegetarian meal box pic credit- ZAS Kitchens meal box pic credit- ZAS Kitchens Mutton Biryani meal box pic credit- ZAS Kitchens
Their dessert meals, truly prepared with the Mughlai charm in it is something worth trying too. You just couldn’t forget the rich taste of their dudhi and carrot halwas. The charge for living up the enticing taste of ZAS Kitchen’s scrumptious Mughlai food is just around 500 for a couple. Lucky restaurant!
The pride of bandra almost a half a century old a special favourite of every foodie residing in or visiting Mumbai. You can just hop in lucky for your dose of Mughlai food made at its best expertise manner. From the lip-smacking slurpy gravies to buttery dipped naans, their meals offered our just crazily amazing! The tikka kebab varieties they serve can be filling and delightful at the same time and still you would crave for more. Left is their so famous Biryani, these haven’t tasted a bit in the years except for better and still give you the same relishing feel as you taste the first morsel of it. Tandoori chicken pic credit- Zomato- lucky restaurant Mutton Biryani pic credit- Zomato- lucky restaurant
Their Khebsa rice that reminds you of the lights of Persian delights all transmitted in their food is a perfect mild spicy nicely cooked rice tossed with chicken is something to die for. If you love the Mughlai taste to extreme and just don’t want to miss it, you just can’t miss their mutton biryani all very muttony, a bit spicy but tasty to its extreme level. Gravies pic credit- dineout- lucky restaurant Curries pic credit- Zomato- lucky restaurant
They even have that art to diversify the taste of their gravies and curries to the level of perfection with the perfect Mughal taste. Something that makes it even more an exciting place to try for Mughal foods in Mumbai!
Tasting all these savouries at lucky restaurant just costs you around 1300 INR for a couple.
After checking these tempting and gracious pictures of such delicious savouries, I’m sure you’d be hitting them one by one to taste those enticing Mughlai food at the earliest! So, what are you waiting for? Just click on the blue letters you see or just order through swiggy , Zomato or UBER eats and get your food delivered at your doorstep! I’m sure you would definitely second me in my opinion to tag these explicit places as the best 5 Mughlai food serving places in Mumbai! share with love!
The Hohokam peoples occupied the land that became Phoenix for more than 1000 years. They created roughly 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable before finally leaving the area following long periods of drought and severe floods . The modern city’s founder had a series of canals built that followed those of the ancient Native American system and the city grew up around them. This gave rise to the city’s name: “Phoenix” was decided upon because it describes a city born from the ruins of a former civilization . Paths of the original Hohokam canals were later used for the modern Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. Geography Landsat 7 Satellite image of the Phoenix Metro Area in 2002.
Phoenix is located in the Salt River Valley, or “Valley of the Sun,” in central Arizona . It lies at a mean elevation of 1,117 feet (340 m), in the northern reaches of the Sonoran Desert . According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 475.1 square miles (1,230.5 km²).
The Salt River course runs westward through the city of Phoenix; the riverbed is normally dry except when excess runoff forces the release of water from the six dams upriver. The city of Tempe has built two inflatable dams in the Salt River bed to create a year-round recreational lake, called Tempe Town Lake. The dams are deflated to allow the river to flow unimpeded during releases. Lake Pleasant Regional Park is located in Northwest Phoenix.
The Phoenix area is surrounded by the McDowell Mountains to the northeast, the White Tank Mountains to the west, the Superstition Mountains far to the east, and the Sierra Estrella to the southwest. Within the city are the Phoenix Mountains and South Mountains. Development is pushing beyond the geographic boundaries to the north and west, and south through Pinal County.
However, its location among the mountains and the weather patterns of the desert have combined to create what is known as the “Brown Cloud.” Particles of carbon and nitrogen dioxide gas are trapped by the air currents that prevail, creating a cloud of pollution. While Phoenix at one time was known as a haven for those suffering from ailments such as allergies , asthma , and tuberculosis, in 2005 the American Lung Association gave Maricopa County its lowest grade for air quality in both ozone and particulates.  Climate Phoenix from North Mt. Preserve Hole-in-the-Rock, a natural geological formation in Papago Park
Phoenix has an arid climate, with very hot summers and temperate winters. The average summer high temperature is among the hottest of any populated area in the United States and approaches those of cities such as Riyadh and Baghdad . The temperature reaches or exceeds 100°F (38°C) on an average of 89 days during the year, including most days from early June through early September. On June 26, 1990, the temperature reached an all-time recorded high of 122°F (50°C). 
Precipitation is sparse during a large part of the summer, but the influx of monsoonal moisture, which generally begins in early July and lasts until mid-September, raises humidity levels and can cause heavy localized precipitation and flooding. Winter months are mild to warm, with daily high temperatures ranging from the mid-60s to low 70s, and low temperatures rarely dipping below 40.
Phoenix averages 85 percent of possible sunshine and receives scant rainfall, the average annual total being 8.3 inches (210 mm). March is the wettest month of the year (1.07 inches or 27 mm) with June being the driest (0.09 inches or 2 mm). Although thunderstorms are possible at any time of the year, they are most common during the monsoon from July to mid-September as humid air surges in from the Gulf of California. Winter storms moving inland from the Pacific Ocean occasionally produce significant rains but occur infrequently. On average, Phoenix has only 5 days per year where the temperature drops to or below freezing.  The all-time lowest recorded temperature in Phoenix was 16°F (-8.8°C) on January 7, 1913. Snow is extremely rare in the area. City parks
Many parks have been established to preserve the desert landscape in areas that would otherwise quickly be developed with commercial and residential zoning. The most noteworthy park is South Mountain Park, the world’s largest municipal park with 16,500 acres (67 km²). The Desert Botanical Garden displays desert plantlife from deserts all over the world. Encanto Park is the city’s largest and primary urban park, and lies just northwest of downtown Phoenix. Papago Park, named for the Papago Indians, in east Phoenix is home to both the Desert Botanical Garden and the Phoenix Zoo, as well as a few golf courses. History Native American period
For more than 1000 years, the Hohokam peoples occupied the land that would become Phoenix. The Hohokam created roughly 135 miles (217 km) of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable. Paths of these canals would later be used for the modern Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. The Hohokam also carried out extensive trade with nearby Anasazi , Mogollon, and other Mesoamerican tribes.
It is believed that between 1300 and 1450 periods of drought and severe floods led to the Hohokam’s abandonment of the area. Hispanic period
Father Eusebio Kino, an Italian Jesuit in the service of the Spanish Empire , was among the first Europeans to travel to the area in the 1600s and 1700s. By this time, the valley was within the territory of New Spain, which was controlled by Spain and later independent Mexico . Father Kino named the river “Rio Salado” (Salt River) due to the water’s high mineral content. He interacted with the few native peoples who remained in the valley but focused mostly on the Pima missions established in southern Arizona as well as exploring other parts of the Southwest and California . Only southern Arizona experienced the full influence of Hispanic cultures; the Salt River Valley itself remained almost depopulated for several centuries. Early United States period
American and European “mountain men” likely came through the area while exploring what is now central Arizona during the early nineteenth century. They obtained valuable beaver and otter pelts; these animals, as well as deer and wolves, often lived in the Salt River Valley when water supplies and temperatures allowed.
When the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, most of Mexico’s northern zone passed to United States control and a portion of it was made the New Mexico Territory (this included what is now Phoenix) shortly afterward. The Gadsden Purchase was completed in 1853. The land was contested ground during the American Civil War . Both the Confederate Arizona Territory, organized by Southern sympathizers in 1861 and with its capital in Tucson, and the United States Arizona Territory, formed by the U.S. Congress in 1863, with its capital at Fort Whipple (now Prescott, Arizona) included the Salt River Valley within their borders. The valley was not militarily important, however, and did not witness conflict.
In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in what is now Maricopa County.
The U.S. Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to quell Native American uprisings. Hispanic workers serving the fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866 that was the first permanent settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Founding of Phoenix
The history of Phoenix as a city begins with Jack Swilling, an American Civil War veteran who had come west to seek wealth in the 1850s and worked primarily in Wickenburg. On an outing in 1867, he stopped to rest at the foot of the White Tank Mountains. Swilling observed the abandoned river valley and considered its potential for farming. The terrain and climate were optimal; only a regular source of water was necessary. The existence of the old Hohokam ruins, showing clear paths for canals, made Swilling imagine new possibilities. Aerial lithograph of Phoenix from 1885
Swilling had a series of canals built that followed those of the ancient Native American system. A small community formed that same year about 4 miles (6 km) east of the present city. It was first called Pumpkinville due to the large pumpkins that flourished in fields along the canals, then Swilling’s Mill in his honor, though it was later renamed Helling Mill, Mill City, and finally, East Phoenix. Finally, the name “Phoenix” was suggested, as it describes a city born from the ruins of a former civilization . 
The first post office was established in 1868. With the number of residents growing (the 1870 U.S. census reported about a total Salt River Valley population of 240), a town site needed to be selected. On October 20, 1870, the residents held a meeting to decide where to locate it. A 320-acre (1.3 km²) plot of land was purchased in what is now the downtown business section.
On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County. The first election for county office was held in 1871. The first church opened in 1871, as did the first store. Public school had its first class on September 5, 1872, in the courtroom of the county building. By October 1873, a small school was completed on Center Street (now Central Avenue). A short time later, a telegraph office, 16 saloons, four dance halls, and two banks were open. Incorporation
By 1881, Phoenix had outgrown its original townsite-commissioner form of government. The 11th Territorial Legislature passed the Phoenix Charter Bill, incorporating Phoenix and providing for a mayor-council government. The bill was signed by Governor John C. Fremont on February 25, 1881. Phoenix was incorporated with a population of approximately 2500, and on May 3, 1881, Phoenix held its first city election.
The coming of the railroad in the 1880s was the first of several important events that revolutionized the economy of Phoenix. Merchandise now flowed into the city by rail instead of wagon. Phoenix became a trade center, with its products reaching eastern and western markets. Modern Phoenix (1900-present) Central Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona, 1908
In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the National Reclamation Act allowing for dams to be built on western streams for reclamation purposes. Residents were quick to enhance this by organizing the Salt River Valley Water Users’ Association to manage the water and power supply. The agency still exists as part of the Salt River Project. The Roosevelt Dam east of the valley was completed in 1911. Several new lakes were formed in the surrounding mountain ranges. In the Phoenix area, the river dried out, taking with it the large populations of migrating birds , beavers , and cottonwood trees.
In 1912, Phoenix became the capital of the newly formed state of Arizona. Phoenix was considered preferable as both territorial and state capital due to its more central location compared to Tucson or Prescott. It was initially smaller than Tucson but outgrew that city within the next few decades to become the state’s largest. In 1913, Phoenix switched from mayor-council to council-manager, making it one of the first cities in the United States with this form of city government. Phoenix in the early twentieth century. The Phoenix skyline, 2001.
During World War II , Phoenix’s economy shifted to that of a distribution center, rapidly turning into an embryonic industrial city with mass production of military supplies. Luke Field, Williams Field, and Falcon Field, coupled with the giant ground-training center at Hyder, west of Phoenix, brought thousands of new people into Phoenix. The Papago Park Prisoner of War Camp was established for internment of Japanese-Americans. Only a few of its former buildings remain today.
By 1950, over 100,000 people lived within the city and thousands more in surrounding communities. There were 148 miles (238 km) of paved streets and 163 miles (262 km) of unpaved streets.
Over the next several decades, the city and metropolitan area attracted more growth. Nightlife and civic events concentrated along Central Avenue. By the 1970s, however, there was rising crime and a decline in business within the downtown core.
Arizona Republic writer Don Bolles was murdered by a car bomb in 1976. It was believed that his investigative reporting on organized crime in Phoenix made him a target. Bolles’ last words referred to Phoenix land and cattle magnate Kemper Marley, who was widely regarded to have ordered Bolles’ murder, as well as John Harvey Adamson, who pleaded guilty to second-degree murder in 1977 in return for testimony against contractors Max Dunlap and James Robison. Dunlap was convicted of first degree murder in the case in 1990 and remains in prison, while Robison was acquitted but pleaded guilty to charges of soliciting violence against Adamson.
Street gangs and the drug trade had turned into public safety issues by the 1980s. Van Buren Street, east of downtown, became associated with prostitution . The city’s crime rates in many categories have improved since that time but still exceed state and national averages.
Phoenix has maintained a massive growth streak in recent years, growing by 24.2 percent since 2000. This makes it the second-fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States following only Las Vegas, whose population has grown by 29.2 percent since 2000.  Government The Arizona State Capitol, which once housed the state legislature is now a museum. Downtown Phoenix south of Jefferson Street
Being the capital of Arizona , Phoenix houses the state legislature. The city of Phoenix is served by a city council consisting of a mayor and eight city council members. The mayor is elected at large, to a four-year term. Phoenix City Council members are elected to four-year terms by voters in each of the eight separate districts that they represent. The mayor and city council members have equal voting power to adopt ordinances and set the policies that govern the city.
Phoenix operates under a council-manager form of government, with a strong city manager supervising all city departments and executing policies adopted by the council. Economy
The early economy of Phoenix was primarily agricultural , dependent mainly on cotton and citrus farming. In the last two decades, the economy has diversified as swiftly as the population has grown. As the state capital of Arizona , many residents in the area are employed by the government. Arizona State University has also enhanced the area’s population through education and its growing research capabilities. Numerous high-tech and telecommunications companies have also recently relocated to the area. Due to the warm climate in winter, Phoenix benefits greatly from seasonal tourism and recreation, and has a particularly vibrant golf industry.
Phoenix is currently home to seven major Fortune 1000 companies: waste management company Allied Waste, electronics corporation Avnet, Apollo Group (which operates the University of Phoenix), mining company Freeport-McMoRan (recently merged with Phoenix based Phelps Dodge), retailer PetSmart, energy supplier Pinnacle West and retailer CSK Auto. Honeywell’s Aerospace division is headquartered in Phoenix, and the valley hosts many of their avionics and mechanical facilities. Intel has one of their largest sites here, employing about 10,000 employees and 3 chip manufacturing fabs, including the $3 billion state-of-the-art 300 mm and 45nm Fab 32. American Express hosts their financial transactions, customer information, and their entire website in Phoenix. The area is also home to US Airways Group, a Fortune 500 company located in Tempe also home to Insight Enterprises (also listed on the Fortune 500). Phoenix is also home to the headquarters of U-HAUL International, a rental company and moving supply store, as well Best Western, a hotel chain, is also headquartered in the city.
In recent years many Internet companies have found a home in Phoenix. Internet companies like eBay, Google, AOL, GoDaddy.com, IPowerWeb, and Easynews all have major offices located in Phoenix.
The military has a significant presence in Phoenix with Luke Air Force Base, located in the western suburbs. Transportation Air An aerial view of the new control tower at Phoenix Sky Harbor that began operations on January 17, 2007.
Phoenix is served by Sky Harbor International Airport, the ninth-busiest airport in the U.S. and 18th in the world  for passenger traffic, handling more than 41 million travelers in 2006. Public transportation
Public transportation throughout the metropolitan area is provided by Valley Metro, which operates a system of buses and a rideshare program. Only 3.38 percent of work commutes are made by public transit. Valley Metro began construction on a light rail project in March 2005, with a projected completion date of December 2008. Interest has also been expressed in Phoenix and several neighboring cities for the creation of a commuter rail system operating on existing railroad lines.
Phoenix is the largest city in the United States without intercity passenger rail service.
Phoenix is served by a growing network of freeways, many of which were initiated by a ½ cent general sales tax measure approved by voters in 1985. Before this network, Interstate 10 and Interstate 17 handled almost all freeway traffic in Phoenix, placing a large burden on surface arterial streets, leading to increased traffic congestion as the area grew in size. Education
Public education in the Phoenix area is provided by over 30 school districts. The Phoenix Union High School District operates most of the public high schools in the city of Phoenix.
Arizona State University is the main institution of higher education in the area. It is currently one of the largest public universities in the United States, with a 2007 student enrollment of 64,394.
The University of Phoenix is also headquartered in the city. This is the nation’s largest for-profit university with over 130,000 students at campuses throughout the United States (including Puerto Rico ), Canada , Mexico , and the Netherlands , as well as online.
There are also ten community colleges and two skills centers throughout Maricopa County, providing adult education and job training. Demographics and culture The US Airways Center in downtown Phoenix is a sports and entertainment arena. It opened in 1992, and is the home of the Phoenix Suns of the National Basketball Association, the Phoenix Mercury of the Women’s National Basketball Association, the Arizona Rattlers of the Arena Football League, and the Phoenix Roadrunners of the East Coast Hockey League. University of Phoenix Stadium on the game day of Super Bowl XLII on February 3, 2008.
According to the 2000 census, there were 1,321,045 people, 865,834 households, and 407,450 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,782 people per square mile (1,074/km²). There were 895,832 housing units at an average density of 1,044 per square mile (403/km²). The percentage of people living below the poverty line was 15.8 percent. By 2007 the estimated population had risen to over 1.5 million. The Phoenix Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) (officially known as the Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale MSA), is the 13th largest in the United States , with a total population of 4,039,182 as of the June 2006 update of the 2000 U.S. census.
As of 2000, the racial makeup of the Phoenix was 71.1 percent white, 34.1 percent Hispanic or Latino of any race, 5.1 percent African American , 2.0 percent Native American , 2.0 percent Asian, 0.13 percent Pacific Islander, 16.4 percent from other races, and 3.3 percent from two or more races.  Since the 2000 census, the non-Hispanic white population in Phoenix dropped below 50 percent. 
In 2000, the Phoenix metro area’s religious composition was reported as 45 percent Catholic , 13 percent Mormon (concentrated heavily in the suburb of Mesa), and 5 percent Jewish . The remaining 37 percent are largely members of Protestant denominations, or are unaffiliated.
Phoenix and the surrounding area is home to a broad range of cultural activities including the performing arts, museums , and events. One music venue is the Phoenix Symphony Hall, where performances from groups such as Arizona Opera and Ballet Arizona often occur. Another is the Orpheum Theatre, which is home to the Phoenix Metropolitan Opera. Concerts also regularly make stops in the area. Several smaller theaters support regular independent musical and theater performances. The downtown Phoenix art scene has also developed significantly in the past decade.
One of the most well-known museums in the area is the Heard Museum just north of downtown. Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan , historic Hopi kachina dolls, and an exhibit on the nineteen-century boarding school experiences of Native Americans . The Heard Museum attracts about 250,000 visitors a year.
Other notable museums include the Arizona Science Center, Fleischer Museum, Hall of Flame Firefighting Museum, Arizona Historical Society Museum, Phoenix Museum of History, the Phoenix Zoo, and the Pueblo Grande Museum and Cultural Park.
Phoenix has long been renowned for authentic Mexican food, thanks to both the large Hispanic population and proximity to Mexico . But the recent population boom has brought people from all over the nation and from other countries. International cuisines, such as Korean , Brazilian , and French , have become more common throughout the valley in recent years.
Phoenix is home to several professional sports franchises, including representatives of all four major professional sports leagues in the U.S. The first major franchise was the Phoenix Suns of the National Basketball Association (NBA), which started play in 1968. The Arizona Cardinals moved to Phoenix from St. Louis, Missouri, in 1988 and play in the NFL’s National Football Conference – West Division. The Arizona Diamondbacks of Major League Baseball (National League West Division) began play as an expansion team in 1998. The team plays at Chase Field (downtown). In 2001, the Diamondbacks defeated the New York Yankees 4 games to 3 in the World Series, becoming not only the city’s first professional sports franchise to win a national championship, but also the youngest expansion franchise in U.S. professional sports to ever do so. Additionally, due to the favorable climate, nine Major League Baseball teams conduct spring training in the metro area, as well as in nearby Tucson. Notes ↑ City of Phoenix. November 10, 2008. Community Trends and Profile Retrieved November 19, 2008.
Keep Calm And Eat Paan: Eating Our Way Through Harris Park!
Facebook My sometime vegetarian friend Laura and I were in need for another food adventure. Something to look forward to after a busy week. So on Friday night we ventured out to Harris Park, one of our favourite places for delicious food to try a lesser known subset of cuisine: Indian Chinese! “Look over there at the sunset, “I say to Laura. The sky is painted a bright orange and looks like we’re driving into the belly of the sun. Which is actually a nice change from our last adventure that involved hailstorms and parking in a stranger’s carport to escape the dangerous precipitation. To the tune of 80’s love songs (one of Laura’s favourite genres) we arrive at Harris Park and park her trusty mini. Getting out you can immediately smell the spices in the air. A hotted up car glides past pumping loud Hindu rap. During the night they’ll continue to lap the five or so streets busy with people. We had a booking at Bombay Talkies, an Indian Chinese restaurant at 8pm but we have some time to kill. We see a large crowd gathered at Shri Refreshment Bar. We go wherever a queue does and we join the queue. On the right of the shop is a drinks stand and at another there is a queue for food. “What’s really popular here?” we ask and then chop up a fried round of bread and serve it with a chole masala (chickpea curry), yogurt and tamarind sauce. It’s like an Indian style nachos and is instantly appealing. Laura also liked the bread roll wedged with a potato patty and chilli sauce with a green chilli on top. And to wash it all down? Alas we weren’t very smitten with the buttermilk soda that reminds me of boiled eggs. So Laura orders a falooda kulfi drink. Falooda Kulfi $8.50 The young guys behind the counter make this precisely and perfectly. There’s pistachio, rose, basil seeds and cubes of rose kulfi and it’s absolutely delicious-sort of like a drink dessert in one. And while this place doesn’t get the most rave reviews, during the night we notice that this place is constantly busy with large queues. Next door is a Turkish and Greek shop that we wander into. We buy some spices, large sheets of bread and green raisins that resemble pistachios in shape and colour and wander up and down the aisles. We walk past people are queuing up at other places for some pani puri – those delicious crunchy shelled mouthfuls filled with potato and served with tamarind sauce and yogurt. By now it’s time for our booking at Bombay Talkies. Service is super friendly and lovely and there’s a younger crowd here. We order a couple of things from the Indian menu but then flip to the Chinese Indian menu and order these because they’re more unusual for us. Everywhere we go they’re a bit worried at us being able to handle spice so we have to reassure them that we are fine. Mango lassi $5 sweet lassi $4 We order a sweet and mango lassi and they’re both delightful and not too cloying or sweet. Chicken lollipop $14 I love the tandoori paste coloured chicken drumsticks that are deep fried and crunchy and come with a fabulous chilli sauce that has a real kick to it. Chicken Kali Mirch $14 I hadn’t really seen Chicken Kali Mirch or black pepper chicken on menus before so we ordered that from the Indian menu. The chicken comes as four boneless pieces of chicken flavoured with black pepper, garam masala, yogurt, onions and ghee and it’s so tender and delicious I’m going to seek it out again or make it at home. Jamai Raja Naan $8 The Jamai Raja naan (named after a popular Indian comedy) comes out and the puffy, soft quarters are filled with green, green chilli and onions and it’s absolutely delicious. Lung Fung soup $8 I hadn’t actually tried lung fung soup before-it’s usually made with snake but this one is a version made either vegetarian or with chicken mince. It’s got that thicker, gelatinous texture to it as well as a resounding hit of pepper spice to it. We both really enjoy this especially on this rainy evening (it seems every time we come to Harris Park it rains!). Shanghai Chicken Fried Rice $17 We had to give the Shanghai fried rice a go because I’ve only had fried rice with sauce once and it was delicious. And this basmati fried rice has a centre of deliciously rich chicken gravy to it. It’s another comfort food that we both adore and we pack all of our leftovers away so that we can enjoy them the next few days. “I need something crunchy,” says Laura and I concur. So we trot off to Taj Indian Sweets & Restaurant nearby who are known for their Awe Samosa Chaat. It’s an entirely vegetarian restaurant and the only restaurant where we see non Indian clientele. The service here too is absolutely lovely and when we order she tells us that we’ve ordered too much. Laura explains that this is actually our fourth meal of the night which she giggles about wide eyed. I think she thinks we’re mad which is actually not wrong. Awe Samosa Chaat $9.90 The samosas are kept in a Four and Twenty pie warmer and they bring it out covered in chickpea curry, yogurt, tamarind sauce and red onion. I’m convinced anyone eating a dry samosa is now getting a raw deal as this is so full of flavour and how I’d like all my samosas from now on thanks. Taj Special Pav Bhaji $12.90 The Taj Special Pav Bhaji is said to be their specialty. It looks plain but is actually delicious. There are two soft, toasted white rolls and a vegetable curry and once you add the raw red onion it ends up being a delicious comfort food. Masala Dosa $12.90 And the third item to arrive is the dosa, our friendly waitress’s recommendation. It’s enormous-see Laura for size and so crispy with a lovely potato curry, chilli sauce, coconut relish and a tangy sambar on the side. Our next stop has us shopping for car dessert. There is a Chatkazz all vegetarian restaurant around the corner ( the last time they invited us to join their staff only birthday celebrations, gave us some birthday cake and we sang happy birthday). They also have a sweet shop that is all pastel shades with an appealing display of goodies. We ask the man behind the counter what they’re known for and he offers to put together a box for us depending on whether we want half a kilo or a whole kilo. We resist the temptation for a whole kilo and get a half kilo box for a reasonable $16.50. He explains all of the items to us and throws in a couple of pieces of Milo burfi. Car snacks are a thing. It’s time for our last stop. We walk towards the sweets shop stopping to say hello to a little Maltese Shihtzu on the way. At Durga Paan & Falooda House they’re doing a busy trade. Paan are an after dinner snack popular for both its stimulant and psychoactive effects. Paan features betel leaves filled with a variety of things from candied fennel seeds, glace cherries, spices and jams. There are few types of paan here. I have to admit I’m not really a fan of paan. I tried it Faheem’s Fast Food and had to discreetly remove it from my mouth because it tasted quite antiseptic. But they’re astute enough to realise that the “sweet Calcutti” paan is probably more to our taste so they hand us one of these. For the sweet Calcutti paan it’s a betel leaf with candied fennel, rose petal jam and coconut. Laura goes first. You don’t bite into the paan, you shove it in your mouth whole and chew it. At first she shakes her head and during the next couple of minutes while she is chewing it she becomes more enthusiastic and by the end she likes it. It’s my turn and the hardest thing is fitting it into my mouth. There are such a range of flavours that come from this-first the fennel and then the rose jam gushes out flooding your mouth with sweet ooze. I have to say that the sweet paan is muuuuch better than the other one I tried. We also tried the falooda and it was fine but the main draw is the paan and we preferred the falooda at Shri Refreshment Bar. And we watch as people line up for their fix of paan. And Max the maltese shihtzu’s owner is in the queue for paan so we get to play with Max more. Honestly food and dogs are my idea of heaven. It’s past 11pm and time to head home. But before we set off it’s time for car sweets. There are a lot that are similar and they’re generally all very sweet. There’s a white one which is sweet boiled cottage cheese with citric acid, one with caramelised milk, a round ball coloured with saffron, chocolate burfi, saffron with coconut, cashew burfi, gulab jamun, cashew with fig rolls, pistachio with milk and saffron with cashew. My favourite is the roll with a fig filling dusted in silver leaf. It’s also the most different to the rest that are all delicious and we nibble and pick from the box. As we pick through the box sampling bites here the song Sweet Dreams by the Eurthymics plays in the background. “You’re the chutney to my samosa,” Laura says to me. “You’re the gulab to my jamun,” I reply. And we’re off home! have you ever tried paan before? And have you tried Indian Chinese food and if so, what did you think of it? These meals were independently paid for. Shri Refreshment Bar 53C Wigram St, Harris Park NSW 2150 Open 7 days 2–11:30pm Phone: (02) 9891 7939 46 Marion St, Harris Park NSW 2150 Monday to Wednesday 5–10pm Thursday to Sunday 11am–2pm, 5–10:30pm Phone: (02) 9891 6695 91 Wigram St, Harris Park NSW 2150 Sunday to Thursday 10am–10pm Friday & Saturday 10am–10:30pm
I actually agree – lots of spicy food has sweetness and creaminess involved to balance the heat – that’s a fundamental aspect of lots of indian and thai cuisine.
it’s the presentation that repulses me – canned whipped cream makes my brain scream DESSERT – a recipe for spicy noodles that included some source of creaminess, like coconut milk, plus some source of sweetness, like palm sugar, would sound awesome.
Ah, Sichuan, part 1
By Ying Lei. The views expressed on this blog do not reflect those of my employer’s.
Visit this link if you have any questions about GDPR compliance. https://www.google.com/about/company/user-consent-policy-help.html Sunday, March 24, 2019 Ah, Sichuan, part 1 First and foremost – Sichuan, to many, is famous as the home of the Giant Pandas, but to me, Sichuan spicy food is mystical. Since I was little, I was told that Sichuan food was so spicy that it would burn your tongue and could give you numb scalp if you were not careful. Just look at the bunch of red chilly peppers, Sichuan pepper corns, raw garlic and chilly oil they put on the food. Secretly I fantasized Sichuan people must have digestive system made of steel. While interning in Silicon Valley, I was properly introduced to some authentic Sichuan dishes in a Sichuan restaurant by my Chinese colleagues, and after many years of sniffling and mouth burning, I was finally acclimated to the spice. Then I was also exposed to other spicy foods such as Thai, Indian, and hot Mexican salsa. When Jack was planning a business trip to China and asked me to accompany him, I suggested that to make the 14-hour journey to China worthy, we could visit Guangzhou and Sichuan after his meeting, so that we could try both his favorite dim sum in Guangzhou and Sichuan cuisine in Sichuan! After Jack’s meetings in Shenzhen, we took the train to Guangzhou and got together with my relatives. They didn’t understand why we would want to go to Sichuan, yet spend so little time in Guangzhou – the food capital of China. First my cousin said: we have really good Sichuan food here in Guangzhou. Then my uncle suggested that we go to the Guangzhou Zoo to see the panda triplets. Seeing that our minds were made up, my aunts warned me strenuously about eating Sichuan food. Not only would it give you pimples and red skin, worst of all, it could give you internal heat! “Sichuan food is not suitable to Cantonese like you,” they said. They gave me many high quality Chinese tea, and made me promise to drink it throughout my trip. My friend also told me to make sure to drink the water in Sichuan which was of cooling element and would help counter the pepper they put in the food. We flew to Chengdu, Sichuan on Monday afternoon. To my disappointment, people in Sichuan didn’t look much different from other Chinese we saw in Guangzhou or Shenzhen. They were not especially husky or muscular and didn’t seem to have any hidden powers. Even the local dialect was so similar to Mandarin which wasn’t difficult to figure out. Luckily, my carefully selected first hotel in Chengdu, Buddha Zen Hotel, exceeded my expectation, so it helped me to recover quickly. The Buddha Zen Hotel was on a street where a Buddhist temple is located. It was small and tastfully decorated as a Chinese Inn from ancient times. Even the whole street was a backdrop of an ancient Chinese street with antique stores, art galleries and local eateries. It was decorated with lots of red lanterns from the Chinese New Year celebration in last month, which made it especially festive. The next morning we met our local guide, Victor, at the hotel lobby at 7:30 sharp. We were going to see the Giant Pandas. Everyone told us to be there earliest possible or the Giant Pandas would be gone indoors if it got too hot outside. As soon as we got into Victor’s orange BMW sedan, he carefully drove out of the parking structure while reviewing the itinerary of our three-day trip. The way he talked made you think that he was leading a group of 30 people in a bus. During our ride, Victor told us many anecdotes about the city, the culture and the food of Sichuan. Victor explained that Chengdu means: becoming the capital. A long time ago, the capital of Sichuan was at where the airport is some 30 minutes away, but then that area was flooded often because it was at the junction of two rivers, so the officials decided to move the city to where Chengdu is now, and building it up as the capital of the Provence, thus, becoming the capital. Victor also told us there were four major Chinese cuisines: Shandong, Sichuan, Jiangsu, and of course, Cantonese (Guangdong). He said the key ingredient of Sichuan dishes was broad bean sauce. I told him in the Bay Area, we often go to this Sichuan restaurant. I asked him if Kung Pao Chicken, Ma Po Tofu, and cold noodle were authentic Sichuan dishes that he would eat at home, and he said yes, indeed. Then I asked if hot and sour soup was a Sichuan dish and he said no. Hot and sour soup was a soup from Hunan. He explained: Sichuan dishes were normally spicy, so the soup they ate in Sichuan were usually bland to balance out the spice. I explained that in America, every restaurant makes hot and sour soup, I just thought that it was an authentic Sichuan dish, because the Sichuan restaurant made it especially spicy, comparing to the Cantonese restaurants, for instance. Then I asked Victor if Moms (our favorite spicy sauce) was from Sichuan, and he said no, Mom’s was from Guizhou! This really made us feel let down, because we thought we were making authentic Sichuan dishes with Moms! When I told Victor about the story of the cooling element of Sichuan water, he laughed. Oh, by the way, we also heard that there is no spicy Mongolian beef dishes in China. Beef made in Mongolia is blend with little flavor. The best part of the day was when Victor took us to the original store of Chan Ma Po Tofu shop in Chengdu! We tried the original recipe with normal spice level of Ma Po Tofu, and alas, we could take it without having burning mouth or other sufferance! That was one of the most joyous and relief moments of the day, my personal opinion. On the other hand the authentic recipe of Kung Pao Chicken was a bit of a disappointment, because it was sweet with lichee flavor. To be continued:
Bebinca: Tried bebinca yet? The Goan queen of desserts packs layers of flavour and history – The Economic Times
You know that someone has been to Goa when they bring out bebinca . This “Queen of Goan desserts” as Fatima da Silva Gracias calls it in her Cozinha de Goa is now available ready, packaged-to-buy as an edible souvenir.
And it is awful. The egg yolks, coconut milk, flour, sugar, ghee and nutmeg that go into it ensure it can’t taste entirely bad, but the rubbery texture of the commercial product, with its signature seven layers stodgily stuck together, actually makes its rich taste rather revolting. Heating helps only a little.
Yet it can be wonderful. Silva Gracias describes the traditional method “baked in a special earthenware oven (tizals), on fires of coconut husks.” A Goan friend explains that these heat unevenly so parts caramelise slightly, which rounds out the taste. “The commercial ones are sweeter to compensate, but taste flatter,” she says.
Silva Gracias notes that it could take a whole day to bake layer after layer, sometimes upto 12-14 hours. It isn’t the number that matters as much as the delicate thinness that can be achieved with care compared to the thick layers of the commercial variety. The thin layers stack up to a whole that is both more solid yet still fragile. Bebinca’s origins are unclear.
The use of egg yolks is typically Portuguese, but the term seems Asian. Silva Gracias recounts a story that it was first made by a nun called Bebiana in the Convent of Santa Monica in old Goa, who baked layers “to symbolise the seven hills of Lisbon and the old city of Goa”. The priests liked her creation and suggested she add more layers. But as Silva Gracias notes, bebinca is also used for several unlayered desserts (like bebinca de claras, which uses egg whites left over from regular bebinca). Confusingly, the term is used elsewhere in Asia, from Malaysia to the Philippines, but usually meaning an unlayered dessert .
Yet there is a very similar parallel tradition of layered sweets, like the Dutch-Indonesian cake called spekkoek or lapis legit, which means ‘layered stickiness’, a good description of what it’s like making this cake which can have 18-24 layers. This seems to link to a European tradition of layered desserts, created in multiple ways. There are laminated doughs, like puff pastry or croissants , where butter is folded into dough, so it melts while baking to separate layers. Baked puff pastry can be layered even further with cream to create the utterly delicious mille feuille or ‘thousand leaves’, a patisserie classic that has mysteriously has dropped out of fashion.
There is Baumkuchen where layers are made by patiently painting batter onto a revolving spit. And there are cakes simply made by stacking separately baked layers, like Hungarian dobos-torte or Russian medovik, where biscuity layers of honey cake are softened by layering with cream. I recently found medovik being sold in Goa, courtesy the many Russians living there now, and its delicious delicacy was a rebuke to what native Goan bebinca has become.
Desi Dishes India Inc Wants To See On The Global Map of 5 Next Prev Play Slideshow Karan Singh – CEO, Suburn Global, Percept 26 Jan, 2018 Achievers from diverse fields share the one dish from their community that they’d like to introduce to the world. “I would like to introduce Sarson ka saag with Makai ki roti. It’s an amazing combination and it is only grown in parts of North India in winter. When made well, it’s the best thing ever.” Masaba Gupta – Designer 26 Jan, 2018 “I love aam toast (mango toast). It’s the right mix of sweet and savoury. Plus, it makes for a very satisfying snack.” Rajat Gupta – Senior Partner, McKinsey, Mumbai 26 Jan, 2018 “I’d like to introduce jalebi to international guests. I’m from Allahabad so that’s the dish I would like to showcase. I don’t know how much people would like it though, because it’s too sweet. I have served jalebis with Indian cuisine to guests from across the world at my home and they loved it. It certainly has a novelty value.” Shankar Prasad – Founder, Plum Cosmetics 26 Jan, 2018 “We are Thanjavur Maharashtrians — so our food has elements of Tamil as well as Maharashtrian cuisine. The dish I’d love to sample to a foreign visitor is ‘Ambat Bhaaji’. Think of it as next-generation sambhar that can serve the purpose of sambhar as well as curry in the meal. It’s made with tur dal, palak leaves [you can use most of the common varieties of palak], tamarind and spices. It’s of a thicker consistency than sambhar, slightly sour (hence the name), highly nutritious, filling and the best part — 100 per cent vegan. You usually have it with rice, other vegetables and, if you think it’s all getting a little too healthy, fried papad.” Atul Kochhar – Michelin Star Chef 26 Jan, 2018 “My hometown is Jamshedpur. I would pick one of the tribal dishes to introduce to the world. The locals make a jhalmuri or bhel out of insects, ants, small crickets, etc. They also make dry chutneys out of it. I’ve tried it and it is delicious. It’s definitely crunchy but hard to describe the exact taste.” Next
Among Coorg’s best
We stayed for three nights in mid March. We were looking for a tranquil getaway away from the city, and Amanvana came highly recommended by some friends.nnWe reached the property around 2PM,and the check in process was as hassle free as it could be. Anita accompanied us to our bungalow and very patiently described the amenities and the various activities that the resort offered. There are a total of 19 bungalows, all built alike, and we got one near the river and the spa.nnIn the next three days, we were enthralled by the sounds and sights of nature that so lovingly graces this place. Lohith, a trained naturalist, took us on a nature walk and showed us trees and flowers – ones we had known as kids and forgotten about, ones we had only read about, and some which we didn’t know existed at all. The next morning, he took us on a bird watching tour around the resort and we spotted around 10 species of birds starting their day. He also took plenty of very nice photographs for us.nnThe resort also organizes a river trek and a coffee plantation visit, both of which are not to be missed if one has the time.nnI was a little apprehensive about the quality of food after reading some reviews here, but to my surprise the food at the restaurant was pretty good (especially the North Indian and Coorg cuisines), and the warmth of the staff more than made up for the slightly disappointing continental spread. Even though we had the all inclusive food package which included lunch and dinner buffets, the restaurant indulged our requests for desserts without charging us anything extra a couple of times.nnWe availed services of the spa all three days, and always came out relaxed and recharged. I would like to specially mention Vipith who took very good care of us and was always ready with recommendations. The clean and large swimming pool, and the generous number of well maintained sitting areas laid across the property were icing on the cake.nnDefinitely one of the few places where reality and expectations are not too far off. Will definitely be back.
Taj Palace Udaipur – Review
I cannot imagine that there is a bad room. We had a delightful room that looked out over the lake to the The old City. nThe ambiance, the food and the staff where faultless. The arrival at the hotel sets the scene with the Welcome Umbrella followed by the tour or the hotel and at the divine ine fruit cocktail. nThere are plenty of places to sit and view the incredible scenery and to soak up the ancient history of the amazing history of Udaipur. nThe Palace on shore is well worth a visit as is the Summer Palace in the lake. nThe Dining Room offered an excellent buffet or arla carte. The breakfast was western and Indian cuisine with fresh fruits in abundance. nThis would be the perfect place for an Anniversary, a Proposal or a milestone Celebration 🍾 nThis truly is a wonderful experience. 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟n
south indian restaurant (Singapore)
11:05 11:26 18:05 Reply to : (Use contact form below)
Anjappar’s humble beginnings started in Chennai more than 50 years back imparting the Chennai some typical Chettinad food. As time passed, Anjappar became a synonym for Chettinad Cuisine. The people’s demand led us to take this experience distant places. Anjappar has been accommodating the modifications of time via growing their standards to cater to the ever-growing requirements of these days’ flavor hunters. And now Anjappar Restaurants have preserved the culinary traditions and served as one among the most awesome Ambassadors of Chettinad Cuisine. The Good South Indian Restaurant » in Singapore gives a rich blend of Indian warmth & beauty. Book a table and Fire up your tastebuds at Anjappar. It is ok to contact this poster with commercial interests.